Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Benjamin Franklin Summary: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin was written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1 790; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his Memoirs. Although it had a torturous publication history after Franklins death, this work has become one of the most famous and Influential examples of autobiography ever written. One of the most powerful and controversial writers of his time, his own words on his greatest creation Description: This book Is Intended for Informational and historical purposes. Bibliography: Canada, Mark, Mr.. Ben]amen Franklin, 1706-1790. All American: Benjamin Franklin. N. P. , 26 Feb. . 2001. Web. 12 Mar. 2013 Joseph, George. Historical Vignette: Benjamin Franklin on Accounting. Academy of Accounting Historians. Historical Vignette, 2005. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. Period 4 Title: The Declaration of Independence Author: Thomas Jefferson Summary: Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence summarizes Americas founding political philosophy.At once a cherished symbol of liberty and an expression of Jefferson monumental talents as a writer, the document captures in unforgettable phrases the ideals of individual liberty that formed the backbone of Americans Revolutionary movement. We will write a custom essay sample on The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In setting forth these self-evident truths alongside a list of grievances against King Georges Britain, the Declaration of Independence Justified the breaking of ties with Mother England and the formation of a new country. This gift edition, printed In woo colors on acid-free paper, contains Illustrations and biographies of the signers alongside the document itself.Description: Historical Bibliography: Declaration of Independence. Declaration of Independence. Charters of Freedom, n. D. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. Declaration of Independence. History. COM. Television Networks, n. D. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin By Summary: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin was written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1790; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his work has become one of the most famous and influential examples of autobiography words on his greatest creation Description: This book is intended for informational and historical purposes. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin free essay sample Franklin can be noninsured as the typical American whose philosophies, beliefs, and principles are exemplified in ones attitudes towards life, wealth, and happiness. The evidence of all these and more can be read in the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. What he calls as rambling digressions, Franklin uses a very unpretentious writing style, almost like a conversation, with anecdotes interspersed in the pages. America will never forget Benjamin Franklin because he was able to accomplish both feats that he mentioned in this famous saying.He was able to live the words of wisdom that he as proliferated by writing lots of sensible and usable things, and more. Everyone in this country knows Benjamin Franklin as a scientist (predicting weather conditions and studied the use of hot air balloons, an Inventor (bifocals, flexible urinary catheter, watertight compartments In ships, lightning rods, Iron furnace stove, odometer, and many more), statesman (the only person who signed all four documents that became the basis for the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, he set up the Postal system and the first fire insurance system in America. We will write a custom essay sample on The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Loped create a militia in Philadelphia to protect its residents, and proposed the Daylight Saving Time). He was also printer (he was an apprentice in his brothers printing shop at 12, at 17 he was a fully skilled printer, at 22 he opened his own printing shop, and printed the popular newspaper the Philadelphia Gazette as well his 3 annual Poor Richards Almanac). Among his works as a printer included making cartoons, Illustrated news stories, and letters to the editor.For those books to read even though they might not have been able to afford to buy books to read. Again, Ben anted to use his printing press to help people understand the world around them. As a philosopher, Benjamin Franklin never wasted his time, so surely he must have loved life. He is remembered as one of Americas great thinkers. His ideas and visions had a clear vision of the way America should be and he spent his time helping to make sure that it would be. Less people knew of Benjamin Franklin as a musician. Ben Franklin found simple beauty in simple tunes.He played several musical instruments, including the violin, harp, and guitar. His great interest in music leads IM to build his own glass harmonica. This simple musical instrument was played by touching the edge of the spinning glass with dampened fingers. The harmonicas beautiful tones appealed to many composers, including Mozart and Beethoven. As an economist, his personal ideas about economy helped to shape our countrys economy. We are lucky that they did because Franklin believed that the only true way to wealth was through hard work.This noble idea became the soul of the American Dream, the idea that all people are created equal and each person has the same opportunity to achieve success. Ben used his printing skills to print paper money, helping to establish the paper currency system in America. Today, we honor Bens contribution to the economy every time we use a hundred dollar bill. Bens face appears on it (Morgan, 2002). Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 in Massachusetts. When he was 12 years old he became apprentice in his brother James printing shop in Boston.He was 17 years old when he left his family for some personal reasons, and ran away to Philadelphia, 4 Pennsylvania. He got an opportunity to go to London where he trained as a printer. Three years later, in 1726, he went back to Philadelphia and opened his own printing shop two years after. The Pennsylvania Gazette became a quick delight of readers as Franklin became its sole owner and published in 1729. A year after, he married Deborah Read Rogers and his son William was born the following year. It was in 1931 that he founded the first Circulating Library.The next year, his second son Francis was born and this year marked the start of his publication of the annual Poor Richards Almanac which ran for 26 years, up to 1758. A disaster happened to his family in 1736 when his young son Francis died. It was this year the he founded the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia. The following year, Franklin was appointed Postmaster of Philadelphia. Being an educated and intellectual person, he proposed the idea for the University of Pennsylvania in 1942. Sarah Sally Franklin was born the year after and two years later, Benjamin father, Josiah died. It was in 1747 that Franklin first wrote about electrical experimentation and organized the first militia in Philadelphia, aiming at protecting its residents. He decided that he had enough of the printing business, so in 1748 he sold his printing ship and retired. This signaled his spending full time in the other roles that he became famous for. His book Experiments and Observations on Electricity was published in London in 1751. The following year, he did his famous kite experiment and also founded the first American fire insurance company.Then his stint being a statesman started to form. He traveled to London many times from 1757 to 1962 as a representative of the Pennsylvania Assembly. He was elected as president of the American Philosophical Society in 1769. It was in 1774 that Benjamin Franklins reputation got damaged with Hutchinson Letters Affairs (Clark, 1983). The Hutchinson Letters Affair began in written to the British government by Thomas 5 Hutchinson, the royal Governor of Massachusetts. In the letters, Hutchinson urged his superiors to send more troops to Boston to fight the American rebels.Ben felt that his friends in Boston should know what Hutchinson was planning. He allowed his American friends and colleagues to read the letters on the condition that they not be circulated or published. However, the content of the letters did get published in the Boston Gazette in June of 1773. The citizens of Boston were furious and forced Hutchinson to flee to England. The British government demanded to know who leaked the letters. In December of 1773, three innocent men were accused. In order to protect them, Ben admitted his guilt.As a result, Bens reputation in England suffered. In January of 1774, Ben was publicly reprimanded. Later that year, Ben left England and returned to America to help write the Declaration of Independence (Clark, 1973). That same year (1774), Franklins wife died. He resumed living his normal life as a statesman as he returned to Philadelphia in 1775 and was elected to Continental Congress and submitted articles of Confederation of United Colonies. The following year, he signed the Declaration of Independence and presided over the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention.That same year, he went to France as American Commissioner where he was one of the responsible persons who negotiated and signed the Treaty of Alliance with France two years after. He was then appointed Minister to France in 1779. He was also one of those who negotiated the Treaty of Peace with the United Kingdom in 1982. Two years later, he also was part of the negotiation for the signing of treaties with Prussia and other countries in Europe. He as elected president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in 1787 and served as a representative to the Constitutional Convention.In 1790, Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia at age 84. 6 Benjamin Franklin as a Writer/Author It was in 1733 that Benjamin Franklin started to publish the popular Poor Richards Almanac whose contents were both original and borrowed. He used the alias Richard Saunders that earned it much reputation. Many of Franklins writings were written using pseudonyms. It was a known fact that Richard Saunders was Benjamin Franklin et he never admitted to it. With the yearly publication of the Poor Richards Almanac were wise sayings and adages that are still being quoted today. In its peak, the publication sold approximately ten thousand copies every year. In 1758, he stopped writing and publishing of Poor Richards Almanac and shifted to printing Father Abrahams Sermons which is more popularly known as the Way to Wealth. His autobiography was posthumously published after his death and became one of the classics (Kernels, 2008). Aside from these two popular writings that Benjamin Franklin is known for, he has ended many articles, Journals, letters, and books that are very useful in daily living. That concern the building of the American nation and its people. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is unmistakably one of his masterpieces because it contains very comprehensive and significant events of his life. Although he did not complete his life story, it is still considered to be full of insights and revelations that many Franklin admirers will find. Conclusion Review of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin When Benjamin Franklin wrote this autobiography for his son as a guide for life, and artsy as a source of family history. This writing is not written as a kind of finished material that any reader would expect any autobiography to be.An autobiography usually covers the complete story of a persons life span over a continuous time frame. However, Benjamin 7 autobiography is actually written over a specific time periods separately. He wrote one part while he was in another continent without the cop of the other parts of the text. What makes this autobiography unique is that Franklin penned it as a letter of instruction in the ways of the world for his son who was then forty years old. The whole writing spans approximately only the first half of what everyone knows of his life. Many famous parts of Benjamin the people already know are not even existent in this autobiography, making it incomplete. One reason that Benjamin did not mind having to finish half an autobiography is because he never intended it to be published. But even with this books incompleteness, the reader still finds a rich strove of anecdotes and life instructions that are practical even in this modern day. Benjamin Franklin remains to be an incredible awesome personality and he still is on f the great person in the entire American history.One would know not really get to know him fully by reading this autobiography, but it does not really matter. Many historians have satisfactorily and comprehensively written about his life in other books. In the pages of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, one would learn what really make this great person tick, what his beliefs are, and why they believe in them. And that is more than enough. It is thought that anyone who enjoys history will find The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin a rare treat. He was very up-close and personal with many of the cost popular personalities in the pre-revolutionary America.In fact, he seemed to have associations with virtually the most important people in the world during his time. Although written in quite an archaic language, this autobiography is still a classic. After all are said and done about Benjamin Franklin and his autobiography, further emphasizing him as one of the prolific Founding Fathers of the United States, it is sufficed to deduce that he had been successful in bringing about a difference in our country. Aside from being a noble statesman that he is more famous for, he had given a lasting legacy of written works that are rich and useful even in this modern world. As an author, Benjamin Franklin has proven to be as prolific as he is a statesman, scientist, inventor, businessman, and philosopher. To view Benjamin Franklin as a writer is not all hard to do considering his other bigger and nobler endeavors. Students who are studying the totality of Benjamin Franklin as he is known are sometimes challenging for teachers to convince. In order to persuade people to consider Franklin as a writer, it is good to show through literary analysis of his works and issues of organization, style, and there elements of literary genre.Benjamin Franklins contribution to the creation of what we now know as American literature is as significant as the others, especially on the genre that he chose to focus on: that of national identity. He has showed through his writing that anyone can be like him and can accomplish things that he did in his lifetime. His style of writing is concentrated on the universal and practical uses as is read in The Ways to Wealth. In addition, he has shared personal insights taken from experience; thus, making his writings sought after in the world of business acumen.Even after he was cost to death, the memory of Benjamin Franklin still lingers on and can still be read and reviewed in the words that he left. While the rest of this autobiography may not be as emphatic and cohesive, it still provides interesting information and insight into Benjamin Franklin. Loaded with moralistic and seemingly pedagogic writings about life, it is the driving force of the personality of this man. No matter how he was Judged in the following generations after him, it cannot be denied that Benjamin Franklins contributions to the dynamic and growing America will forever be etched in the annals of history.
Friday, March 6, 2020
buy custom Educational Placements essay For student with disabilities, placement choices directly affect the opportunity to be around non-disabled peers, a context that is essential to learning relevant skills and developing supportive social relationships. Special education instruction can be provided in a number of settings. The public agencies ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available to meet the needs of these students. This paper describes the roles, advantages and disadvantages of resource room placement, general education classroom placement and, home instruction. Resource Room Placement A resource room is an educational setting within a school that offers remedial instruction to students to students with learning disability. Generally, students spend most of their time in general or regular classes but visits a resource room for a portion of their day for group or individual instruction on specific areas outlined on the childrens individualized educational program. The main pro of a resource room is that it is very helpful due to the efforts of individual teachers who provide individual assistance, remediation and positive reinforcement. Also, students can benefit from specific training while remaining integrated with their age mates and friends in school. On the other hand, resource room has some cons. For instance, the school rsk publicly identifying the students with disabilities as being different from others or peers. This can possibly cause self-image as well as self-esteem issues for these students. For example, putting students with mild disabilities into a separate room with the ones with severe cognitive delays can damage the self-esteem and self image of the students with mild disabilities. Home Instruction This is where families are actively involved in their disabled childrens education. Family input is very critical advantageous, as family members supply considerable information on student strengths, weaknesses, dislikes, responses to past interventions, preferences and their future hopes and goals. Home instruction can deny the students with disabilities a free and appropriate education if the parents are derelict in their duties and fail to cooperate with relevant school districts. General Education Classroom Placement This placement involves full inclusion whereby students are placed in a general education classroom for the entire school day. The support and services necessary to ensure an appropriate education come to these disabled students in the general education class; students are not pulled out into special classrooms for instruction. This placement has some advantages. Foor instance, its full inclusion goes beyond returning students who have been in separate placements to the general education classrooms. It incorporates an end to labeling students and shunting them out of the regular classroom to obtain the required services. It responds to calls for never streaming by establishing a unified and restructured system that serves all students together. On the other hand placement/full inclusion is not achievable for many disabled stude3nts. The reality is that specialized academic and social instruction can best be provided, at least for some students, in pull-out setting. Finally, moves to full inclusion will result in the loss of special education personnel who have been trained to work with disabled students who have diverse needs. Therefore, the students will be dumped in an environment that does not meet their specific needs. Conclusion In ideal situations, all placement issues should be decided in logical sequence after the children are determined eligible for special education and after an individualized education plan has been designed by the childrens relevant educational teams. According to mainstreaming requirement, it is not good to place students with disabilities outside regular classrooms if educating them in the regular classrooms with supplementary aid and support services can be satisfactorily achieved. Buy custom Educational Placements essay
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Tesco - Essay Example If the global sales and domestic market share of the company is taken into account then it is found that the company is the largest British retailer by far. The profit of the company exceeded ?2 billion for the year 2008 and it is believed that the profit will be much higher in the year 2009. The company mainly focuses upon food and drink but it has also started dealing in clothes, financial services, internet services etc. Ã¢â¬Å"Tesco started life in 1919 when Jack Cohen started selling surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London. Mr. Cohen recorded a profit of ?1 from total sales of ?4 on his first day.Ã¢â¬ (A History of Tesco) The brand Tesco first appeared in the year 1924 when Jack Cohen supposedly bought a tea shipment from Mr. T. E Stockwell. The year 1929 marked the opening of a store in North London and the company rapidly developed from there on. The head quarters of the company was first established in North London in the 1930s. In the year 1932 the compan y became a private limited company, another feather in the cap of Tesco. PESTLE PESTLE is an acronym for Political, economic, sociological, technological, legal and environmental factors. Let us examine how strong the organization is after conducting a PESTLE. SWOT analysis and PESTLE are conducted to assess the strengths and opportunities available to an organization. The current success of Tesco is largely because of the favorable political climate, Tesco has managed to penetrate into nations which were previously considered difficult to penetrate into and this is certainly paved the way for success. Politically the organization has helped in solving the unemployment problem in the UK, the credit crunch has taken a toll on the employment rate but Tesco has still managed to provide job opportunities hence bringing down the unemployment rate in the UK. The EU laws largely favor Tesco, the EU laws tend to favor organizations that have a large presence in a country, Tesco not only has a large presence in the UK but it has also expanded rapidly in other countries as well and this has certainly worked to the advantage of the organization. Tesco needs to be aware of the planning permission because it has plans of further expansion and things can go horribly wrong should an organization avoid planning permission. It is extremely important to pay attention to the marketing strategy of Tesco, the organization has put in a lot of efforts into marketing, and they have captured almost every opportunity to grow. The specialty of the organization was initially in drink and food business but the giants gradually decided to enter into consumer products like music players, CD players, computers and other products that sell like hot cakes. The competitive marketing plan of the organization is right up there with the best, each store is a different segment and steps are taken on every store to increase the sales and generate good profits. The SWOT is in favor of Tesco, the bigg est strength of the organization is its workforce, as mentioned earlier the employees are very affable and friendly. The customers feel good when they share their problems with the employees. Another strength of the organization is its global reach, the stores are spread across in several countries which is no ordinary achievement. Jack Cohen started on a very basic level and within no time the organization
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Foreign direct investment and Employment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Foreign direct investment and Employment - Essay Example Mirza (1998) states that movement of labor and links with domestic subcontractors enable transmission of business culture, which involves corporate values, organizational structures and management practices (qtd. in Mickiewicz et al. 2000, p. 5). Michalet (1997, p.1) tells that over the last two decades, more and more developing countries have changed their attitude towards foreign direct investments that instead of fearing, limiting or even banning the entities, they have not only welcomed it but are competing to attract them. Foreign direct investment is an important source of external finance in transitional economies particularly those in Central Europe (Lansbury et al. 1996, p.104) as it helps to cover the current account deficit, fiscal deficit [in case of privatization-related FDI], and supplements inadequate domestic resources to finance both ownership change and capital formation (Krkoska 2001, p.1). Since 1988, around 70 per cent of FDI in transitional economies has been channeled into these countries. Deutsche Bank Research (EU Monitor 2005, p.14) reports that foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) rose almost tenfold between 1994 and 2003 - from USD 20 bn to USD 197 bn. It also reported that in terms of FDI in relation to GDP, there was an impressive increase from 6.9 per cent to 33.2 per cent.1 Lansbury et al. also contend that FDIs may have played an important role in transforming the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe as FD Is provide an important source of investment for modernizing the industrial structure of these countries and improving the quality and reliability of infrastructure. Sader (2000, p.2) states that because public industrial structure have relatively low priority for cost-effectiveness and profit generation [which is the opposite for private firms], excess staffing and low-quality service provision results. FDIs, through private lenders and equity investors, provided infrastructure services around the world through full-scale privatization of public sector entities, the construction of new facilities with private capital on the basis of build-operate-transfer (BOT)-type investments, lease arrangements, and operation and management (O&M) contracts (Sader 2000, p.2). A study done by Dimelis and Lauri (2004) using Greek firms as samples confirms that an effect of foreign direct investment on host economies is increases in productive efficiency. Lansbury et al. add that new investments may also bring badly needed skills and technologies into the host economy. Evidences compiled by Lane (1994) in Hungary show that multinational firms had a higher propens ity to trade and invest than purely indigenous ones (qtd. in Lansbury et al. 1996, p.104). Foreign direct investment is important not only as generator of new employment but also as agent that can change the structure of employment in the direction that would be more favorable for a long-term growth of CEECs, that is, more likely to happen if FDI is diversified, according to Mickiewicz et al. (2000, p.7). In their study on the employment effects of FDI on four sample CEECs2, Mickiewicz et al. found out that foreign direct in
Monday, January 27, 2020
How Ethics affect a Nurses role in Euthanasia Euthanasia is an emerging argument seen all over the world. In this argument includes the role of the nurse and the four ethics the nurse is to abide by, justice, beneficence, autonomy and non-maleficence. This paper will explore how these four ethics can play a part in how the nurse may feel about the idea of euthanasia, and how these four ethics can play a part in the deciding factor of whether euthanasia of humans is something that should be carried out or not, regardless of persons physical health. It will examine which ethical principles is the argument for or against euthanasia, is the involvement of the nurse ethically justified, and if so, can it be considered good nursing care? The practice of nursing has long had a high regard for, and treasuring, of life. If it is the job of the nurses to save and protect lives, then how can the consideration of euthanasia fit into nursing practice? Many consider helping a person to find peace and to gain some control over their death as a means of treasuring life. It provides the person with the chance to die in a dignified manner, and to not suffer. The nurse infarcts four moral codes into everyday practice; respect for autonomy, non maleficence, beneficence and justice. These moral codes are brought into light exponentially when the request for euthanasia has been made by a patient and the nurse must find a way to not only adhere to the ethics of practice, and advocate for the patient, but to be in tune with their own ethical thoughts and feelings. In regards to respect for autonomy, euthanasia can be argued as a good practice. It can be justified from the basis of respect for the individuals autonomy (Quaghebeur, Dierckx de Casterle Gastmans, 2009). Providing care for the patient and respecting their autonomy means respecting the request of euthanasia from the patient, though it may not correlate with the nurses personal feelings of euthanasia, or their ability(physical or mental) to carry out the requested task (Quaghebeur, et al 2009) Professional integrity of nurses can be used to support euthanasia from the standpoint of autonomy as well. It is this integrity that is responsible for fellow humans, therefore having respect for their autonomy. In congruence with this responsibility for fellow humans, euthanasia is now compatible with the integrity of nursing. The nurse with this professional integrity respects the patient autonomy, therefore providing compassionate care and promoting optimal well being of the patient. As as result of this care, euthanasia is now in accordance to the idea of the nursing profession, as human dignity is protected, patient interest is promoted, and the patient is being cared for(White, 1999) In accordance to the moral point of justice, in order to protect the patients interests, euthanasia can be seen as good care for the patient, ethically justified as a form of a good death. It could be argued that it would be not only unjust, but cruel to refuse the request of euthanasia (Quaghebeur, et al 2009). The ethical principle of non -maleficence means to do no harm (Potter and Perry, 2010). However, nurses harm their patients everyday simply by administering treatments such as chemotherapy for a patient with cancer. These treatments are seen as acceptable however, because the benefit is greater than the initial harm(McCabe, 2007). The Hippocratic oath, an oath that is traditionally upheld by all nurses and medical professionals, has proscribed the event of abortion and surgery. Despite the true definition of this oath to do no harm, these practices are allowed because they serve the ability to promote patient well being. Along the same instance of promoting patient well being, a patient may need the nurse to assist them to die when prolonging life is indeed harming the patient. In this situation, death would be a benefit (White, 1999) This brings around the idea of beneficence, the nurse is the patient advocate who must do good, promulgate the best interest of others (Quaghebeur et al 2009). The nurse is very often the first to receive the request of euthanasia from the patient due to the closeness and depth of involvement the nurse has in a persons life. In a study of American nurses, the reasons claimed for having even participated in euthanasia was a feeling of responsibility for their patients welfare, and a way to help relieve the patient of their pain and suffering (De Bal, Gastmas, Dierckx de Casterle, 2008). Indeed, ending pain and suffering can be seen as doing no harm, but bringing about peace and comfort. For instance, the right thing for a nurse to do when confronted by the pain of a patient is to alleviate that pain, because healing is what the activity of nursing is directed at, easing the suffering and restore the sense of well-being to a patient. This is to act morally well, because this act assuag ed the pain of the patient. (McCabe, 2007) Nurses are committed to not only preventing and minimizing the effects of disease and promoting health, but to relieve pain and suffering that can be brought about by these maladies (White, 1999) Several criticisms can be seen going against the idea of euthanasia being a morally good practice because it is based upon respect for the patients autonomy (Quahgebeur et al 2009). It is argued that the nurse who is obliging to advocate for the patient wishing for euthanasia, while respecting the patients autonomy, is not respecting their own autonomy. Respecting a patients autonomy in regards to life, or the lack thereof, is undermining the importance of social community, as dying as a social practice, much as life is a social practice (Quaghebeur et al, 2009) Euthanasia is argued to in fact not administer justice to the autonomy of a patient (Quaghbeur et al 2009). If a patient does indeed receive euthanasia, though it may be respecting their autonomy by carrying out the request, once the patient has passed on, they are no longer able to enjoy that autonomy (Quaghebeur et al 2009). In the literature of nursing ethics, the principle of non-maleficence outright rejects euthanasia, due to the irreversible damage made to the patients life, it is seen as too drastic of an intervention to be even used (Quaghebeur et al 2009). According to the principle of non-maleficence,euthanasia is not considered good ethical nursing practice owing to the sanctity of human life Human life is deserving of respect, despite a growing population and people now living longer than before due to the advances of technology. Each human life is of both equal dignity and sacrosanct(Quaghebeur et al 2009). The American Nurses Association holds the position on this issue that assisting an individual to die is not compatible with the nurses role in society. Non-maleficence means to do no harm and this is the pledge nurses make to society. By assisting the patient in suicide, the trust between the nurse and the patient is destroyed. (ANA 2001) Doing good for the patient doesnt always mean ending their life when they have stated they want to die, as there is a difference between stating the desire to die as opposed to actually having the desire to be killed (Quaghebeur et al 2009). If the nurse wants to do good by the way of the patient, then quality and dignity of life must be examined. A patients interests are never served by fulfilling the request of death, even if the patient believes otherwise. Is it possible to actually judge how worthwhile someones life actually is, that there is a life that is not worth being lived? (Quaghebeur et al 2009). Ethics of desire may outshine the ethics of reason, and with that, a threat of moral relativism disseminating a patients interest determines good ethical nursing practice (McCabe 2007). In a case where preservation of life can no longer be attained, then the nurse will continue to heal through practice of ensuring physical and emotional comfort, support of the patient and their loved ones, assisting the patient to a place of security, comfort and peace (McCabe, 2007). Society places a great deal of trust upon the nursing profession and by engaging in measures to end a patients life, this professional integrity contravenes and undermines this trust that has been placed upon them. (McCabe, 2007) A nurse as an individual will need to clarify their own values, as the implications of euthanasia are enormous. As a nurse, a definitive decision on their position in regards to this issue must be made. All aspects of the issue must be looked at, fully understood, and only then a decision on position should be made. A nurse needs to respect not only a patients autonomy, but their own as well, and need to remain true to their own values as well. Many different controversial issues will be confronted during the career of a nurse, including assisted suicide. The nurse needs to be not only educated on the implications of such actions, but educated in their own opinions, with the ability to think critically about these controversial issues. A nurse will need to be involved in their politics to maintain their emotional integrity when confronted with a situation that may or may not be ethical to them. Within time, there is a greater chance of more and more states passing laws allowing human euthanasia to occur, as well as against, and the the ability to apply the oath to do no harm will be examined again and again. This writer believes that the act of euthanasia in nursing is a subject that needs to be considered very deeply. If the values of nursing ethics include autonomy, beneficence, justice, and non-maleficence, then the concept of euthanasia, in a positive way, reflects all four ethics. A patient who is hurting, and a nurse who continues to prolong a life that is physically demoralizing and painful (indeed causing the patient harm, when a nurse is to do no harm), has a duty to that patient to ease the pain and suffering to the furthest extent possible to the request of the patient. Though it may seem irrelevant to the care of the patient, this writer has always had a firm belief of euthanasia. If a person puts their pet to sleep because the pet is no longer able to live a good quality of life, the owner does right by the pet by euthanizing it, though the pet cannot say in so many words that it is suffering and wants this to be over. A human being has the ability to express what his or her feelings on continuing their life, regardless of the quality, is. To deny a person who is fully capable of making their own decisions, the ability to end a life that will be soon be over and is wrought with pain and suffering, is wrong. To not allow the patient peace and comfort, and relief from pain that a nurse is supposed to give, impedes on the top ethic of medical practice, do no harm. Indeed by not complying with the patients wish of the pain to end, the nurse is doing harm, mentally and physically, and not just with the patient, but with the patients family as well. Though this writer will have to continue to educate herself on the practices that may or may not involve human euthanasia, it is the belief that this is a subject that will be brought up again and again, especially in the critical care settings, where pain, death and dying is at its greatest. Conclusion While there many arguments for and against assisted suicide, the answer to the question of whether it is right or wrong remains ambiguous. One reason for the lack of clear cut answers is that assisted suicide is an ethical issue which is dependent on a persons values, morals, religion, and experiences. In general, the topic of end-of-life decision making is very sensitive and evokes strong emotions and opinions. Instead of debating the issues involved with assisted suicide, this paper merely describes pertinent arguments that have been presented by both sides. There are many nursing implications that are associated with assisted suicide. Among these is the importance for nurses to be aware of their own beliefs about end-of-life care. Self-awareness will prepare nurses for obstacles they will face when dealing with death. Another implication is that nurses need to be cognizant of politics and legal authority. Becoming active in political processes, nurses can work to ensure that they will not be forced into doing procedures that come in direct conflict with their beliefs. In final conclusion, the code of ethics a nurse is to oblige by can come across as a very gray area. There does not seem to be any cut and dry reasoning behind whether the practice of euthanasia is good or bad, or something that a nurse should or should not participate it. The ethics can be construed to fit any need necessary, whether it is in favor of the act of euthanasia, which can be argued that by ending a life one is removing the pain. Or it can be argued that by administration of such lethal drugs to carry out the act, one is indeed harming by bringing about death.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Executive Summary This paper analyses the recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and how such changes are comparable to the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Important parameters of the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council are discussed, such as category management, whole lifecycle approach, skills and capacity of procurement professionals, and openness and transparency. These dimensions are compared to the principles and objectives listed in Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. In addition, the paper provides recommendations to improve procurement practices available at Leeds City Council. Eventually, a tender specification sheet is provided to invite bids from private players to run the woodhouse car park in front of the University. Key performance indicators to evaluate tenders are included. Introduction Leeds City Council has made certain changes to its procurement strategy recently. The council emphasised specific elements indicating the importance placed on ensuring high quality procurement services. Such elements refer to category management, whole lifecycle approach, skills and capacity of procurement professionals, and openness and transparency (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). These dimensions are similar to the principles and objectives set in Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and how they compare to Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s Procurement Strategy Compared to the Procurement Strategy of Staffordshire County Council Leeds City Council demonstrates a primary objective to improve outcomes and value for money obtained from a wide range of goods and services it purchases. Therefore, the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy is based on essential principles to include whole lifecycle approach, accountability to the public, openness and transparency (Hawkins et al. 2011). The strategy indicates the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns to rely on expertise in the field as well as utilise relevant examples of adequate practices maintained at local and national levels. The common expectation presented with the enforcement of the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s new strategy is to realise its full potential within two years. The council extensively supports not only its ambitions but also the ambitions of its partners in the process of delivering quality outcomes for service users (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). A relevant part of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy is the adoption of a category managem ent approach, where procurement professionals tend to group together related purchasing. Such approach is entirely focused on exploring variances in buying needs and provider offerings (Iyer and Pazgal 2008). In this way, the council is concerned with maintaining high quality of services along with savings. Similarly, the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council presents diverse orientation in terms of proper identification of the goods and services purchased by activity and function. Staffordshire County Council also states the importance of achieving value for money. Another recent change to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is associated with the adoption of a whole lifecycle approach. It is essential to point out that such approach starts from ongoing evaluation of buying needs as well as analysing different options. In fact, the mentioned approach receives optimal application through careful preparation and procurement (Niezen and Weller 2006). Mobilising the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s resources is a significant priority to the professionals responsible for the implementation of the procurement strategy. Such principle corresponds to Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy of relying on the voice of all people of Staffordshire on specific issues that matter to them (Staffordshire County Council 2014). This shows a strong sense of collaboration with residents and communities in order to identify proper solutions to any emerging problems. Staffordshire County Council places importance on leading and influencing as well as sharing knowl edge with representatives from the public sector in Staffordshire (Kennekae 2012). Early engagement is crucial in maintaining savings and improvements that further reflect in transformational changes in the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. The whole lifecycle approach adopted by Leeds City Council regarding its procurement strategy assumes that service delivery should not be compromised. Other significant dimensions of this approach relate to contact management and exit which contribute to achieving extensive value for many. In addition, the recent changes observed in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and that of Staffordshire County Council reflect the importance of the skills and capacity of procurement professionals. They are mostly responsible for ensuring the maintenance of a relevant procurement process based on supporting the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s business continuity needs (Niezen and Weller 2006). The latter is extensively manifested in the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Procurement professionals structure arrangements with key providers in an attempt to manage the risks pertaining to the process of supplying goods and services. Thus, professionals in the respective field are expected to set high quality processes through cross-functional strategic activities that are evident in both Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council (Loppacher et al. 2006). Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy considers the significance of employing common principles a nd rules which are properly designed to correspond to the needs of all included categories. Emphasis is on reflecting the needs of the specific service areas along with stakeholder needs. This recent change in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is in line with ensuring quality outcomes (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). Such procurement strategy is comparable to the one of Staffordshire County Council due to the process of aligning delivery of goods and services with the corporate needs identified by Staffordshire County Council (Staffordshire County Council 2014). The respective council utilises the expertise of procurement professionals to ensure social values outcomes as well as sufficient savings achieved through a balanced scorecard used for procurement. The focus on the skills and capacity of procurement professionals is among the improved areas of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Having skilled and experienced staff is important in delivering high quality outcomes to local communities. Moreover, Leeds City Council manifests its responsibility to support the development and training of procurement professionals in order to maintain high standards across the profession (Loppacher et al. 2006). There is a solid sense of accountability evident in the practice of each procurement professional working at Leeds City Council. In comparison, Staffordshire County Council emphasises the capacity of its procurement staff in terms of providing legal training packages. This indicates an ongoing process of developing the knowledge and expertise of all professionals involved in the procurement practice (Arora et al. 2007). In this way, procurement professionals can work together with other experts in the field to implement the spe cific objectives listed in the procurement strategy of both Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council. One of the observable recent changes in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is that the central procurement function is projected to serve as a flexible source of excellence and thus is accountable for providing a substantial source of expertise. Procurement professionals working in Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council are extensively trained to demonstrate ownership and accountability to the public in their respective communities (Kennekae 2012). Elements of structured governance and assurance make Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy rather effective. However, the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council is oriented towards indicating a Ã¢â¬Ëcustomer of choiceÃ¢â¬â¢ model of delivering services. This implies that procurement professionals working in Staffordshire County Council are responsible for the creation of greater visibility of the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements for goods, services and provider performance (Staffordshire C ounty Council 2014). Therefore, professionals are determined to ensure proper communications and organising skills that help them in the establishment and implementation of linkage. Similarly, procurement professionals in Leeds City Council are devoted to research good practice documents and toolkits while trying to reinforce their skills and capacity. Furthermore, the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is comparable to the one of Staffordshire County Council in the aspect of openness and transparency. Both councils indicate an ambition of being open and transparent which reflects in providing visible contracts as well as constantly updated management information (Kim and Netessine 2012). Leeds City Council places importance on presenting clear and accessible tender processes and documentation. Openness and transparency ensure the formation of a positive relationship between the council and its procurement partners. Likewise, such aspects are closely linked with instilling confidence in the public regarding the adopted procurement approach (McLean 2008). In comparison, the procurement strategy implemented by Staffordshire County Council indicates its staffÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to ensure compliance and probity which may be associated with the principles of openness and transparency manifested by Leeds City Council. Recommendations The recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council indicate that the respective councilÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is comparable to the strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Yet certain recommendations are listed below to achieve further improvements in Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy: Procurement professionals should work on creating an inclusive procurement strategy in which smaller providers are presented with an opportunity to participate (McLean 2008); The council should constantly research and update its available procurement tools to guarantee competitively established standards in the field; The council should consider the removal of unnecessary restrictions which would allow the institution to evaluate suppliers in an objective manner rather than focus on limiting business criteria such as revenue (Loppacher et al. 2006); Professionals need to demonstrate sensitivity to financing issues to include established payment policies; It is fundamental to indicate potential hidden costs in terms of providing clear information on the actual insurance, liability as well as regulatory requirements; this practice would allow innovative suppliers to compete (Hawkins et al. 2011) Conclusion The paper indicated an analysis of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy with special focus on its recent changes and how they are comparable to the procurement strategy outlined by Staffordshire County Council (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). Thus, significant aspects of both procurement strategies have been discussed in order to identify the focus of procurement professionals working in the two councils. Certain aspects of the two procurement strategies were found similar especially with regards to category management and lifecycle approach. Moreover, the efforts of procurement professionals are equally important to the work of either Leeds City Council or Staffordshire County Council (Staffordshire County Council 2014). In this way, the paper ensured adequate arguments about the effectiveness of the procurement strategies adopted by these institutions. Tender Specification Sheet Leeds City Council is seeking tenders from various private providers for the maintenance and operation of the woodhouse car park in front of the University. The intention is that the car park will operate as a proper public amenity. There are certain standards of services that will be followed. The respective parking services are set at prices identified at proper market levels. Prices are competitive in order to encourage visitor parking regarding close distance to local businesses. Discouraging the practice of day-long parking is essential for the maintenance of the woodhouse car park. The park will be open 24 hours a day, seven days/ week. Personal security will be ensured to customers and visitors. They need to feel secure in the identified car park area. The integration of area security is a priority to the Council. All tenderers are invited to submit their applications by providing the following documentation: -Financial Proposal for a period of 3 years; -Details on the percentage of the turnover expected to be paid annually to the Council; -Evidence indicating previous experience in the area of car park projects; -Providing details of the resources available to complete the project; In order to evaluate the bids from the private players, it is important to provide a set of key performance indicators that will be consistently used (Iyer and Pazgal 2008). The first performance indicator is that the selected tender should provide the best value for money at reasonable cost. This may result from balancing cost and quality. Another key performance indicator that will be used to assess the bids is that of prequalification. Such indicator is implemented to make sure that only those who meet specific criteria will be considered for inclusion to bid (Loppacher et al. 2006). In addition, prequalification is associated with responses to a set of questions provided by the Council. Major questions should include elements of quality, capacity to supply and financial competence. The indicator of open and flexible communication is fundamental as no private player should be given preference. Even though meetings with tenderers who have placed their bids may be necessary at a cer tain point, they should take place solely for clarifying specific aspects regarding the tender (Hawkins et al. 2011). It is important to use recognised channels of communication in order to avoid confusion of private players or any misunderstanding of presented information. References Arora, P., Garg, A. K. and Vaidya, S. C. (2007), Ã¢â¬ËEfficacy of Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility and Procurement StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, South Asian Journal of Management, Vol. 14(1) pp105-119 Hawkins, T., Gravier, M. and Powley, E. (2011), Ã¢â¬ËPublic versus Private Sector Procurement Ethics and Strategy: What Each Sector Can Learn from the OtherÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 103(4) pp567-586 Iyer, G. and Pazgal, A. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement Bidding with RestrictionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Quantitative Marketing & Economics, Vol. 6(2) pp177-204 Kennekae, L. (2012), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement Strategies to Serve the Public Good,Ã¢â¬â¢ International Trade Forum, 2 pp11-111 Kim, S. H. and Netessine, S. (2011), Ã¢â¬ËCollaborative Cost Reduction and Component Procurement under Information AsymmetryÃ¢â¬â¢, INSEAD Working Papers Collections, 33 pp1-40 Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy (2013), Leeds City Council [Online]. Available at: http://www.leeds.gov.uk/docs/Procurement%20Strategy%20V1.0%20PUBLISH%2030.09.2013.pdf [Accessed: 29 April 2014]. Loppacher, J. S., Luchi, R., Cagliano, R. and Spina, G. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËGlobal Sourcing and Procurement Strategy: A Model of Interrelated DecisionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Supply Chain Forum: International Journal, Vol. 7(1) pp34-46 McLean, S. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËChoice in Government Software Procurement: A Winning StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Public Procurement, Vol.8(1) pp70-97 Niezen, C. and Weller, W. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement as StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84(9) pp22-24 Staffordshire County Council (2014), Staffordshire Procurement [Online]. Available at: https://www.staffordshire.gov.uk/business/procurement/homepage.aspx [Accessed: 29 April 2014].
Friday, January 10, 2020
Literature reminds us of stories, epics, sacred scriptures and classical works of the ancient and modern times. Literature is defined as the body of written works of a language, period or culture, produced by scholars and researchers, specialized in a given field. Why is literature important? Let us see. As stated in the quotation by C. S. Lewis, literature not only describes reality but also adds to it. Yes, literature is not merely a depiction of reality; it is rather a value-addition. Literary works are portrayals of the thinking patterns and social norms prevalent in society. They are a depiction of the different facets of common manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Classical literary works serve as a food for thought and a tonic for imagination and creativity. Exposing an individual to good literary works, is equivalent to providing him/her with the finest of educational opportunities. On the other hand, the lack of exposure to classic literary works is equal to depriving an individual from an opportunity to grow as an individual. Prose, poetry, drama, essays, fiction, literary works based on philosophy, art, history, religion, and culture and also scientific and legal writings are grouped under the category of literature. Creative nonfiction of the ancient times and literary journalism also fall under literature. Certain extremely technical writings such as those on logistics and mathematics are also believed to be a part of literature. Some of the great literary works like the Bible and Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, among others, provide society with the guiding principles of life. Ancient poetic works by poets like Homer, Plato, Sappho, Horace and Virgil, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnets and notable poetry by W. B. Yeats, John Keats, Wordsworth, Tennyson and William Blake are timeless. The Lord of the Rings, The Godfather, A Tale of Two Cities, James Bond series are some of the best-selling books of all time. The Adventures of Pinocchio, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland, Winnie-the-Pooh were some of the greatest works in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. The relatively recent Harry Potter series made record sales across the globe and carved a niche for J. K. Rowling. However, a discussion about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s authors would be incomplete without the mention of all-time popular authors like Aesop, Enid Blyton, Roald Dahl and Mark Twain. It is through reading such great literary and poetic works, that one understands life. They help a person take a closer look at the different facets of life. In many ways, it can change oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective towards life. Lives of brilliant achievers and individuals who have made a valuable contribution to society, are sketched in their biographies. These works give the readers an insight into the lives of these eminent people, while also serving as a bible of ideals. Literature serves as an enormous information base. Research works by famous inventors and literary works by notable scientists often narrate stories of their groundbreaking discoveries and inferences. Ongoing developments in the fields of science and technology are documented so that the world can know about them. Several ancient scriptures relating stories of human evolution and narratives of human life in those times, have been of tremendous help to mankind. Thus, literature has always served as an authentic source of information from all around the world. True, languages are the building blocks of literature. But the study of literature cannot be restricted to only studying languages. In fact, literature cannot be confined to an educational curriculum. A degree in language and literature is perhaps unable to provide one, with everything that literature can offer. Literature, is definitely, much more than its literary meaning, which defines it as Ã¢â¬Ëan acquaintance to lettersÃ¢â¬â¢. It, in fact, lays the foundation of an enriched life; it adds Ã¢â¬ËlifeÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËlivingÃ¢â¬â¢ Literature is also a mode to express public opinion in variety of genres. It is also a part of tradition, one we pass on to our future generation. It tells us of our rich culture and gives us a sense of pride in our country. Literature is the lighthouse of any culture and to know any culture better we must know its literature as it gives us a true picture of the culture and its development. The extant remains of the literary texts of earlier civilizations throw light on our past and gauge our development. Literature enriches the mind and reading as they say makes a man perfect. Today there are books available on a variety of subjects, books meant for education, books meant for entertainment and books meant for self- development. There is a book for each one`s choice. All said and done, literary enlightenment of a society is the true measure of its development and progress and India is a land with a rich literary heritage and one that people all over the world look up to for guidance. | Art is an extremely private experience, yet, it is meant to be shared with the public. Society, as a whole, examines the art produced and has the right to approve, disapprove, acknowledge, ignore, praise and abuse it. The public or society has not remained constant over the years. In the time of the Renaissance, for example, only a select few were Ã¢â¬Å"society. Ã¢â¬ They commissioned art, were patrons of the arts and their artists. Today, almost anyone can share in the experience of art. They can attempt to create, view and act as a critic. Does art make the world a better place, or is it quite useless? This is a very ancient riddle, and no one has solved it yet. A similar question Ã¢â¬â has art truly had any impact upon society? Has it fashioned or molded minds? Has it shaped opinions and altered how people feel or think? Is it practicable in or relevant to society and its individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ daily lives? Art reflects life. It is a portrait of history, whether it is history of the current moment or an event in the past or something of the imagination. Art has captured an event, clarifying its existence and representation to society. The portraits of the French Revolution by David, Benjamin WestÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of the death of General Wolfe and PoussinÃ¢â¬â¢s recreation of the Rape of the Sabine Women all strive to provide a version of historical events. Society, in turn, can accept or reject these portrayals of true events. Sometimes, as in the case of GoyaÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of the French behavior during their conquest of Spain, art inspires a deep hatred of a certain nationality. |