Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Identify the various forms of plagiarism Research Paper

Distinguish the different types of copyright infringement - Research Paper Example n an understudy takes another student’s work and presents them as his/her own, and when an understudy downloads from the web work that had been done and introducing it as his/her own. It likewise includes having somebody do a task for you and introducing their discoveries or work as though you are the person who did the task (Gaines, 2007). Different understudies and writers will anyway not present works taken from different sources in its unique composed structure †they will reword different people’s thoughts, examination, supposition and data to think of new works. Despite the fact that the work appears on the assumed worth to be unique, just the wordings have transformed from the first author’s work however the thoughts are obtained. This is normally alluded to as controlled written falsification (Neville, 2007). Understudies and creators needing to make their work delicious or increasingly respectable may take portions of different people’s work and fuse them with theirs to improve their thoughts. The extra bits of work might be cites, phrases from a passage or whole sections. The utilization of these parts without recognizing the source comprises to incomplete or juice unoriginality (Gaines, 2007). Individuals additionally have a propensity of introducing their works either in general or in parts in more than one event or for various assignments. At the point when this is managed without letting the individuals utilizing the work for the ensuing occasions know when the first work was done, one is viewed as associated with self written falsification. This is most basic when one is required to deal with a task with comparable necessities as the one he/she had recently taken care of (Neville, 2007). It is significant for individuals to maintain a strategic distance from written falsification however much as could reasonably be expected. The most significant thing is for essayists to realize what comprises written falsification and the suggestions that one is probably going to confront whenever saw as liable of counterfeiting. Scholars should realize how to recognize wellsprings of their work. They should realize how to do referencing and references appropriately utilizing the extraordinary

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Wuthering Heights Argumentative Essay Example For Students

Wuthering Heights Argumentative Essay Childishness Emily Bronte goes with her kin, Charlotte, Anne, and Branwell, in a seriesof sentimental works. Emily remained at different life experience schools yet lived the vast majority of her life inher family s separated home in Yorkshire, England. Biographers demonstrate that she delighted in asolitary way of life in the normal magnificence of the fields when not in her home. Emily Brontedevoted her life to her dad since her mom s disastrous demise left him defenseless. She andher sisters were not acquainted with the possibility of marriage yet rather were instructed that theymust be completely mindful to their dad s needs. As she didn't go out, Emily wrotepoetry and short stories to occupy her time. She got energetic about her compositions and sentthem to a distributer to be distributed. In attempting to distribute her book, a fellowship andcorrespondence created among Emily and an editorial manager. Emily s fascination with theeditor developed, yet their relationship was non-romantic as he was a hitched man. She remained hismutual compare till her initial passing at thirty years old. Emily Bronte s energetic style of composing has confused numerous biographers,because they can't envision such composing originating from such a saved individual. We will compose a custom exposition on Wuthering Heights Argumentative explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now EmilyBronte fused into her works of Victorian compositions †¦ the frightfulness and riddle of agothic novel, the remote setting and enthusiastic characters of a sentimental novel, and thesocial analysis of a Victorian novel†¦ (Cerrito 107) She changed her accounts ofVictorian times, to ones of wonder by consolidating components all things considered. Bronte s onlynovel, Wuthering Heights, is viewed as one of the most impressive and unique work ofVictorian writing. In Wuthering Heights, Bronte †¦demonstrated the contention betweenelemental interests and acculturated society†¦ (Cerrito 107) Wuthering Heights is acompelling work that shows the immediate impact of narrow-mindedness on satisfaction. Selfishnessdirectly impacts joy in that an expansion in narrow-mindedness prompts torment, while adecrease in it prompts joy and harmony. Satisfying your wants at the expense of others prompts torment and a need ofhappiness. Catherine s self-centeredness prompts her torment and that absence of satisfaction. Catherine s childish character is delineated when she wants both Edgar and Heathcliff at thesame time. She needs Edgar for his life and Heathcliff for his spirit. Catherine s seemingaltruistic intentions don't prompt the satisfaction she looks for. Rather, she torments herself bythe aftereffects of her own activities. Catherine s commitment to her better half conflicts with her lovefor Heathcliff. Catherine s nature rests in Heathcliff, while her shallow love rests inEdgar. Her commitment to Edgar originates from the status she gains in wedding him. Sheclaims that she wedded Edgar to assist her with trueing love, Heathcliff. †¦despite her nobleassertions despite what might be expected, she is an animal of this world all things considered. She will wed Edgarbecause he is rich and handsome†¦ not on the grounds that she cherishes him. (Shapiro 153). Despite the fact that sheclaims to cherish Heathcliff, activities talk stronger than words and her union with Edgar hurtsHeathcliff and upsets the two houses drastically. Catherine does the most narrow minded thinga sweetheart can do by wedding someone else other than her genuine affection for insignificant individualstability. †¦by wedding Edgar, Catherine double-crosses herself just as Heathcliff, making anemotional distress which keeps her from discovering contentment†¦ (Cerrito 107). Inmarrying Edgar, Catherine messes with herself in intuition she can be upbeat. Moreover, shecontinues seeing Heathcliff, figuring she can control her joy. Her holding contactwith Heathcliff harms Edgar since he sees Catherine s love for Heathcliff as selling out hislove for Catherine. Since childishness has expended her spirit, Catherine responds toEdgar s justifiable envy by endeavoring to torment on him. She will hurt herselfas much as could reasonably be expected, with the goal that she can hurt Edgar. Catherine secures herself her room, andstarves, realizing that Edgar s love for her will lead him to come back to her in spite of heractions towards Heathcliff. In her isolation, Catherine genuinely becomes sick and she torments herselfby the acknowledgment of the absence of satisfaction she looks for. She feels very bothered as aresult of the acknowledgment that she has settled on an inappropriate choice. Catherine wants to remainin ideal situation with her union with Edgar, yet she aches for Heathcliff and attemptsto keep the two men throughout her life. She wouldn't like to pick between the two, and thereforenever does. In this way she causes agony and damages the two men. She ignores the sentiments of Edgarand stays in touch with the loathed sweetheart. Narrow-mindedness in the long run break down Cathy, andshe falls critically ill. In her last days, Cathy understands her as she sees and yearns for herold home. Her wants rest in her past viciousness and her need to come back to her formerstate with Heathcliff. Since she has chosen to wed Edgar for economic wellbeing, she cannotreturn to the affection she had for Heathcliff. †¦Cathy s narrow-mindedness and her endeavor tocompromise with society s directs shield her from satisfying her adoration for Heathcliff. (Shapiro 153) Both men, Heathcliff and Edgar, upset her passing as they devotethemselves to her. .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .postImageUrl , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .focused content territory { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:hover , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:visited , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:active { border:0!important; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; mistiness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-change: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:active , .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:hover { murkiness: 1; progress: haziness 250ms; webkit-change: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relativ e; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .ctaText { outskirt base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content adornment: underline; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; fringe: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: striking; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt span: 3px; content adjust: focus; content improvement: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: total; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f7 4498905710337e .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u5e036e9bdd77a815f74498905710337e:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Moviegoer EssayHer sweethearts dedication strife as the two men hate one another. Catherinemarried Edgar in the childish any expectations of a superior life, yet in doing so Catherine torturesherself by her egotistical need to keep both Edgar and Heathcliff in her life, knowing they bothdespise one another. Underneath Catherine s love for Heathcliff lies a real clash, a clashof various degrees of energy which finishes by devouring her. (Traversi 131) Her selfishdecision at last prompts her passing. Catherine ignores Heathcliff s love and makes adecision to satisfy her shallow needs. Thusly, her absence of adoration for Edgar causes Catherineto fulfill her need to see Heathcliff significantly after she is hitched. She again disregardsanother emotions, Edgar s, to fulfill her wants. The self-centeredness that rules Catherine s life,torments her as she can't adjust both of her dedicated darlings and as she endures ahaunting demise. In spite of the fact that an individual additions benefit from satisfying his wants, satisfying your will at thecost of others prompts torment. Heathcliff was presumably the most narrow minded individual in all ofWuthering Heights. He ruins Catherine s life when he vanished for a long time. He alsoruins Isabella s life by wedding her just for vengeance. Heathcliff powers youthful Cathy tomarry Linton and afterward executes the poor sickling kid through disregard. These are just themajor outcomes of Heathcliff s narrow-mindedness. Heathcliff s looking for retribution in a selfishmanner prompts the wretchedness of his own spirit. Heathcliff s consistent maltreatment as a youngster and hislost love for Catherine drives him to form into an immense being. Heathcliff comes intothe Earnshaw family, and despised for being boorish. Earnshaw s child manhandles Heatcliff,and Heatchfill again gets injured by Catherine as she ignores his adoration and weds Linton. In reprisal to the maltreatment he has suffered, Heathcliff looks for vengeance being used to free his soulof the evil treatment he has encountered. Heathcliff announces he doesn't feel torment whenthinking of the retribution he can take. Therefore, he accepts he can discover happinness in hisrevenge. Be that as it may, the specific inverse happens. While he looks for satisfaction through tortureof others, Heathcliff s fulfillment isn't satisfied. Heathcliff shows that retribution has notreleased him expressing that he yet consume

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Your Data is Safe with Us (not US) - Focus

Your Data is Safe with Us (not US) - Focus Theres been a lot of media attention over the past week about PRISM and how its affecting users of internet tools. Weve written this blog post to put your mind at ease and to inform all of our users that your MindMeister data and activity cannot be accessed by the PRISM program. What is PRISM? PRISM is a previously unknown program run by the National Security Agency (NSA) in the United States. They can legally access data from internet companies held on servers in the United States. It was established in 2007 under the Bush administration to obtain detailed information about online activity including email content and live chat. “The NSA has built an infrastructure that allows it to intercept almost everything. If I wanted to see your emails or your wife’s phone, all I have to do is use intercepts. I can get your emails, passwords, phone records, credit cards.” Edward Snowden, whistleblower How is Your Data Safe with Us? MindMeister is exclusively hosted on servers in Germany and has no agreement to share user data with any Government or agency. The servers in Germany are protected by the Federal Commission for Data Protection and Freedom of Information. We are committed to protecting our users information as set out in our privacy statement. We will maintain all user created data and information in strict confidence (unless a user wishes to publish it) and we will take the same degree of care to protect that information as we would employ to protect similar information belonging to us. It is important to note however that MindMeister must provide data and information to the German Government following just cause and  a court trial. Your Data is Safe with Us (not US) - Focus Theres been a lot of media attention over the past week about PRISM and how its affecting users of internet tools. Weve written this blog post to put your mind at ease and to inform all of our users that your MindMeister data and activity cannot be accessed by the PRISM program. What is PRISM? PRISM is a previously unknown program run by the National Security Agency (NSA) in the United States. They can legally access data from internet companies held on servers in the United States. It was established in 2007 under the Bush administration to obtain detailed information about online activity including email content and live chat. “The NSA has built an infrastructure that allows it to intercept almost everything. If I wanted to see your emails or your wife’s phone, all I have to do is use intercepts. I can get your emails, passwords, phone records, credit cards.” Edward Snowden, whistleblower How is Your Data Safe with Us? MindMeister is exclusively hosted on servers in Germany and has no agreement to share user data with any Government or agency. The servers in Germany are protected by the Federal Commission for Data Protection and Freedom of Information. We are committed to protecting our users information as set out in our privacy statement. We will maintain all user created data and information in strict confidence (unless a user wishes to publish it) and we will take the same degree of care to protect that information as we would employ to protect similar information belonging to us. It is important to note however that MindMeister must provide data and information to the German Government following just cause and  a court trial. Your Data is Safe with Us (not US) - Focus Theres been a lot of media attention over the past week about PRISM and how its affecting users of internet tools. Weve written this blog post to put your mind at ease and to inform all of our users that your MindMeister data and activity cannot be accessed by the PRISM program. What is PRISM? PRISM is a previously unknown program run by the National Security Agency (NSA) in the United States. They can legally access data from internet companies held on servers in the United States. It was established in 2007 under the Bush administration to obtain detailed information about online activity including email content and live chat. “The NSA has built an infrastructure that allows it to intercept almost everything. If I wanted to see your emails or your wife’s phone, all I have to do is use intercepts. I can get your emails, passwords, phone records, credit cards.” Edward Snowden, whistleblower How is Your Data Safe with Us? MindMeister is exclusively hosted on servers in Germany and has no agreement to share user data with any Government or agency. The servers in Germany are protected by the Federal Commission for Data Protection and Freedom of Information. We are committed to protecting our users information as set out in our privacy statement. We will maintain all user created data and information in strict confidence (unless a user wishes to publish it) and we will take the same degree of care to protect that information as we would employ to protect similar information belonging to us. It is important to note however that MindMeister must provide data and information to the German Government following just cause and  a court trial.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Martin Luther King as a Role Model - 1944 Words

Martin Luther King as a Role Model Everyone has someone that they look up to. It may be a hero or a role model. Martin Luther King serves as a role model for many African Americans because of his contributions and fight towards civil rights. King became very popular and touched the lives of many. According to Robert A. Divine and other authors of America Past and Present, the arrest of Rosa Parks sparked a massive protest movement that witnessed the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., as an eloquent new spokesman for African Americans. King led a prominent bus boycott in honor of Mrs. Parks. The boycott successfully ended a†¦show more content†¦On March 28, 1968, King led a march through Memphis, Tennessee, which, like all his marches, was intended to have been peaceful and non-violent. But thanks to a gang called The Invaders, the march disintegrated into rioting and looting. King barely escaped the March 28 event unharmed, and swore to return to Memphis and conduct this demonstration properly - with no violence. The date for the new march was set at April 4, 1968. This time, King would not survive his fateful trip to Memphis. Additionally, local newspapers criticized King when he announced he was coming back to Memphis for a second round. Among other comments, the local press criticized him for staying at a white-owned Holiday Inn, instead of the Motel Lorraine, which was black-owned. Hoping to avoid further antagonistic press in wake of the disastrous March 28 demonstration, Kings camp switched his accommodations to a room at the Motel Lorraine, where he died on April 4. From a security standpoint, changing Kings lodging to this particular motel was a bad mistake. The Motel Lorraine was located in a fairly seedy part of town. The day before King arrived, someone claiming to be an advance security man dropped by the Lorraine Hotel and changed Kings reservation from a ground-floor room to a second-floor balcony room, saying, Dr. King always likes toShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Role Model Analysis Of Martin Luther King Jr.1926 Words   |  8 PagesLEADERSHIP ROLE MODELS Submitted By : Cole Kennedy Andrew Nguyen Mia Harbaugh Keaton Aliabadi Maame Kwamah Otsieku Baah Submitted to: Professor Taylor Carr Date: September 5, 2017 1.0 Introduction This write-up focuses on the leadership role model analysis of Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), and Mark Zuckerberg. Each of these leaders are extraordinary in their own rights and in each of the leaders’ analysis.The analysis highlights why they are role models, their keyRead MoreTransactional Leaders : Transformational Leaders1140 Words   |  5 Pages I will be discussing Martin Luther King and explain what style of leadership Martin Luther King, Jr. had, whether transformational or transactional, what type of leadership characteristics Martin Luther King, Jr. demonstrates, and what aspects of servant leadership Martin Luther King, Jr. exhibits. Overview of Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born with the name of Michael King until his father changedRead MoreTransformational Leadership : The Most Important Aspect Of Management1088 Words   |  5 Pagesof transformational leadership: charisma, intellectual and inspiration. Not only will this paper define the different aspects of transformational leadership but it will provide examples of leaders who exude each aspect. Charisma Steve Jobs, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Einstein all are known as charismatic leaders. A charismatic leadership style is a lot like a transformational leadership style because the leader uses enthusiastic measures to keep morale up with employees. They believe thatRead MoreMartin Luther King s Fight Against Injustice1726 Words   |  7 Pages Martin Luther King is an extraordinary man who has accomplished great thing in his fight against injustice and segregation. like Selma and other cities it was clouded in a storm of racism but Martin Luther King came and reduced it to ash. â€Å"I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear.† (Martin Luther King) and I think of that wondering if I can live up to those words. Back in the 20’s through 60’s racism was at it’s strongest and it got worse. Martin Luther King had a roleRead MoreMartin Luther King’s Quest for Equality1340 Words   |  5 PagesEquality Martin Luther King Jr. had a substantial impact on how the United States views civil rights. During his lifetime, Martin became highly educated and used his knowledge to help others in a positive way. King was not only an influential leader of the Civil Rights Movement, but also a catalyst and a leading figure of the 1960s. His leadership and practices still live on today, and the Civil Rights Movement wouldnt have been nearly as successful without his leadership and guidance. Dr. King pushedRead MoreDr. Martin Luther King Jr., A Political Icon Essay1441 Words   |  6 Pagesbecause they and their accomplishments have forever changed society and the world. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of those individuals. Martin Luther Kings contributions to history place him in this inimitable position. One of the great figures in the march of human history, Martin Luther King Jr., like Gandhi before him, lived by a heroic credo of non-violence. More than two decades since his death, Martin Luther King ideas; his call for racial equality, his faith in the ultimate triumph of justiceRead MoreLeading Organizational Change Essay841 Words   |  4 Pagesnegative effect on that organization; therefore, it is extremely essential that the leaders within that organization take heed to virtually every aspect of the changes taking place in order to ensure quality assurance in one’s organization. â€Å"The leader’s role is tremendously important in guiding change efforts in organizations.† (Howell and Costley 365 - 377) In regards to changes within an organization, specifically within a public or a nonprofit organization, many examples can demonstrate many scenariosRead MoreMartin Luther King, Jr.s Speech, I have a Dream, Led to Change in Civil Rights1732 Words   |  7 PagesMartin Luther King, Jr.’s â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech on August 28, 1963 led the way for a much needed change in America’s Civil Rights Era. Martin’s life brought about much needed change to allow black people to have equal opportunities. Martin Luther King, Jr. came from a long line of Southern Baptist Preachers. His father and grandfather’s influence led the way for him to also become a Baptist preacher. The man he was came from his strong convictions in the word of God. This gave him the courage andRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.881 Words   |  4 PagesMartin Luther King Jr. â€Å" If you can’t fly, then run, if you can’t run, then walk, if you can’t walk, then crawl, but whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward.† (King). Martin Luther King Jr. is a name many know. He was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. He grew up in a very religious family, with his father being a pastor, and all. He was galvanized by his father and became a Baptist minister and social minister after he attended Boston University at the age of 15. He, laterRead MoreCivil Rights Activists: Martin Luther King Jr., Malcom X, and Huey Newton1223 Words   |  5 Pages American icon and former civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. once said, I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. This quote speaks volumes about the message that he is trying to convey towards society regarding racism. He is basically saying not to judge others just because of their skin color, but love them for who they are. We should not be

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Mental Model Of Donnie Vincent s Life - 1383 Words

1a. Donnie Vincent’s emotions and values closely resemble those of myself and members of my family. His emotions for hunting and outdoors are positive. He said it is very rewarding, both physically and mentally. He feels emotions of joy and excitement even when just thinking about it and preparing for the season. He describes a strong emotion each fall being in the places he loves, he can feel it in his blood. His mental model is more than likely complex compared to a distanced person. Because of his lifestyle he has received education regarding hunting, population dynamics, and healthy food. The parts and relationships of his models include similar things to many of the NRM students such as hunting, fishing, food, family, excitement,†¦show more content†¦The hills social hunters have these reasons to hunt as well, but the time spent with friends and family is most important to them. Where Donnie’s mental model is more complex and understanding because of educa tion; the black hills hunters didn’t really know much about why the population was low and the agency wanted to educate them. This would lead their mental models to be variable between each other and not all of them agreeing. Outdoor activity of any kind can be beneficial to your biophilia, which is fulfilled by Donnie’s activities and the activities of the social hunters. On the contrary, it is also possible that Donnie has a stronger biophilia since he feels the need to be in his favorite natural places. The social hunters of the hills could be satisfied just by being around friends and family even though not being specifically in the outdoors connecting with nature. Their wildlife value orientations are more than likely similar without much contrast. Utilitarian and some pluralist ideas and beliefs resemble Donnie and the social hunters. The social hunters may want more deer for more opportunities, while Donnie might rather have fewer healthy animals. Other than thi s the norms between the two are quite similar. 2. Aldo Leopold’s land ethic is as relevant today as it was when he wrote it, and it still will be one hundred years from now. This is because it’s quite simple, even though it involves

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

English Vocabulary in Use Chapter 21/58 Free Essays

Chapter 21| | Rewarding| Gives you a lot of positive experiences| Fruitful| Produces good results| Lucrative| Makes a lot of money| Therapeutic| Makes you healthy in body and/or mind| Relaxing/calming| Reduces stress, gives a peaceful feeling| Time-consuming| Takes a long time to do| Culture vulture| Big fan of anything cultural| Couch potato| Physically very inactive person| Dabbler| Person who never keeps doing one activity for long| Doer| Person who believes in acting and doing things, not just thinking| Shopaholic| Person addicted to shopping: compare alcoholic: addicted to alcohol| Is†¦ into| Informal: takes a great interest in/is very involved in| Went off| Informal: stopped liking/lost interest| Locks herself away| Isolates herself from the world| Hooked on| Informal: is addicted to| Get up to| Informal: do| Full diary| A lot of commitments/activities| Chapter 22| | Scruff| Dirty and untidy person| Pastel| In pale colours| Power outfits| Formal clothes to make you seem powerful| Frumpy| Old-fashioned and boring| Outfit| Set of clothes for a particular occasion| Dress codes| Accepted way of dressing in a particular social group| Dress down| Wear less formal clothes| Smart-casual| Clothes that are informal, but clean, tidy and stylish| Dressy| Suitable for formal occasions| Skimpy| Close-fitting, using little material| Baggy| Loose eg. Of sweater| Snazzy| Modern, stylish| To be dressed to kill| Wear clothes to attract people’s sexual attention| Designer (label) clothes| Expensive clothes| Off the peg/rack| Cheap clothes| On the high street| Cheap clothes| Off the cuff| Without having prepared anything| To be hand in glove with someone| To have a close working relationship with someone| Cloak-and-dagger| Involving secrecy and mystery| To have/take the shirt of someone’s back| Someone’s last possession| On a shoestring| Spending as little as possible| Without frills| Simple and plain| To put someone in a straitjacket | Restrict someone’s freedom| To wear the trousers| To be the dominant partner in a marriage| Chapter 23| | Squat | An empty building where people start living without owner’s permission| Hovel| Very poor, dirty house or flat in bad condition| Pied a terre| Small flat/house in a city owned/rented by people in addition to their main house and used when visiting the city| Penthouse| Luxury flat at the top of a building| Council housing| Provided by state for people who cannot afford own home| High-rise flats| Flats in tall modern building with a lot of floors| Granny flat| Set of rooms for an elderly person, connected to relatives house| The rat race| Unpleasant way in which people struggle competitively for wealth and power| Fengshui| A Chinese philosophy position of buildings and arrangements of objects in their home affect health and well-being people. | Minimalism| A style involving using the smallest possible range of materials, colours etc. We will write a custom essay sample on English Vocabulary in Use Chapter 21/58 or any similar topic only for you Order Now only the most simple shapes/designs| Post-modernism| A style of architecture. The arts etc. popular 1980’s – 1990’s| New age| A way of life and thinking developed late 1980’s, includes wide range of beliefs and activities not accepted by most people| Subsistence farming| Where people live by growing just enough food for their own family| A household word/name| Something everyone knows| A drink on the house| A free drink| Home truths| Information that is true but not pleasant or welcome| Nothing to write home about| Nothing special| Hit home| Become fully understood or fully felt| That’s the story of my life| That’s what always happens to me| Have the time of your life| Have a wonderful time| Get a new lease of life| Become more energetic and active than before| A dog’s life| A very unhappy and difficult life| Chapter 24| | Socialising| Spending leisure time with other people| A housewarming (party)| Party to celebrate moving into a new house or flat| A launch (party)| Party to celebrate the publication of book/new product| A fancy dress party| Party where everyone dresses up in costume as other people| A stag party| Party before the wedding for husbands and male friends| A girls’ night out/a hen party| An evening for just female friends. Hen party: for a wedding. | A reception| Formal party| Wedding party| Main group of close family and friends at a wedding| Black tie/white tie| Formal party with black bow ties or white bow ties| Networking| Making contacts that will be useful business/career| Old school tie/old boy network| Contacts made by the children of the upper class while at expensive private school| Pro-active| Taking action yourself rather than waiting for something to happen| Put themselves about| Informal: make themselves visible in the hope of being noticed by someone important| Climb the career ladder| Getting higher up in your career| To hobnob/hobnobbing| Negative association, to be friendly with someone who is important or famous| To rub shoulders with| Informal: mix socially with people who are famous| Hangs out with/knock around with| Spends social time with| A bash/do/get-together/booze up| A party, booze up = colloquial lots of alcohol| Outstaying my welcome| To host = staying to long| Party animal| Someone who loves going to parties| Party pooper| So meone who spoils parties by being disapproving/miserable| Clubbing| Going to one or more nightclubs| On the town| Enjoy the entertainment in a town| Chummy/pally| Friendly| Cliquey| Negative word for small group of people who spend time together and do not allow others to join them| An item | Having a romantic relationship| Stood me up| Failed to turn up on a date| Drop him| End our relationship| Gone on a pub crawl| Gone to spend an evening going to several different pubs| Chapter 25| | Overrated| Not as good as people say| Hackneyed| Done so often it is boring| Impenetrable| Complex and impossible to understand| Disjointed| Unconnected and not clear in order| Far-fetched| Impossible to believe| Risque| Slightly immoral and likely to shock people| Gripping| Exciting and keeping your attention the whole time| Harrowing| Extremely upsetting| Moving| Making you feel strong emotion, especially pity or sadness| Memorable| You remember it long after| Understated| Done or expressed in a simple but attractive style| Panned| Very negatively criticised| Lauded| Highly praised| Bombed| Was a failure| Awards| Prized/honours| Up-and-coming| Likely to become very famous or successful| Masterpiece| Very great work of art| Was miscast| Was the wrong actor for the role| Encores| Calls from the audience to repeat it| Standing ovation| The audience stood up and applauded| Interpretation| Way of understanding and performing it| Version| One of several performances that exist| Rendition| Performance on a specific occasion| Portrayal| The picture she created| Chapter 26| | Pulling the wool over†¦ eyes| Deceiving| Philistinism| Inability to appreciate art or culture| Detractors| Critics| Wised up| Become more sophisticated| Dumbed down| Become less intellectual| Tate modern| New modern art gallery in London| Renaissance| Period of new interest in the arts, Europe 14th/16th century| Fad| A short enthusiasm for something| Vote with their feet| Stop coming| Impressionism| Types of artist and schools of the last 150 years| Cubist| Types of artist and schools of the last 150 years| Surrealists/surrealism| Types of arts and schools of the last 150 years| Deemed| Considered (formal)| Visually literate| Educated with regard to art| Immune to/inured to| Not affected by| Opposites in the brackets| | Highbrow (lowbrow)| Intended for educated, intelligent people = disapproving| Impenetrable (transparent)| Extremely difficult to understand| Sophisticated (primitive)| Showing advanced skills and understanding| Challenging (undemanding)| Demanding considerable effort to be understood| Dazzling (pedestrian)| Inspiring great admiration because it is brilliant in some way| Evocative (uninspiring)| Calling up images and memories| Exquisite (clumsy)| Having rare beauty or delicacy| Intriguing (dreary)| Interesting because it is strange or mysterious| Peerless (run-of-the-mill)| Better than any other| Tongue-in-cheek (earnest)| Not intended to be taken seriously despite appearing serious| Chapter 27| | lurb| Short text on the back of a book describing what the book is about| Poignant chronicle| A moving and sad description of a sequence of events| Compelling tale| Powerful story that keeps you interested| Lugubrious setting| Rather dark and gloomy setting/situation| Page-turner| Very inter esting and engaging story| Enigmatic tale| Mysterious story| Macabre| Often cruel or disgusting, concerned with dead| Chilling| Causing great fear| Breath taking achievement| Amazing achievement| Wry humour| Humour in the face of a bad situation| Evocative scenes| Scenes which arouse memories or images| Journal| 1. A written record of what you’ve done each day 2. An academic publication containing articles, reporting research, new theories etc. ublished at regular intervals| Memoirs| Written record of person’s own life, typically by politician or military figure| Anthology| Collection of, for example, poems or short stories from different authors| Compendium| Collection of detailed, concise information about a particular subject| Manuel| Usually a technical book with instructions| Logbook| Book that records events and times etc. ship, plane etc. | Compulsive reading| Formal: difficult to stop once you’ve started| Can’t put down| Informal: difficult to sto p once you’ve started| Lightweight| Not complex, slightly negative connotation| Bedtime reading| Nice to read in bed| Heavy going| Difficult to read| Get into| Become involved/engaged with| Chapter 28| | Synthetic| Made from artificial substances| Wholesome| Good for you, physically or morally| Wholemeal| Containing all the natural substances in the grain with nothing removed| Fair Trade| Refers to products such as coffee, tea, chocolate marketed in such a way that the small farmers in developing countries who produce them get the profits rather than large multinational companies | Free-range| Relating to farm animals that are not kept in cages| GM| Genetically modified, i. e. the genes of a natural product have been altered in some way| Loopholes| Ways of getting round regulations| Derivatives| Things produced from| Recipe for| Situation sure to lead to| All the ingredients of| All the necessary characteristics| Dilute| Make less dominant| Stew| Worry or suffer especially about something you think is his fault| Grilled | Asked a lot of questions| Half-baked| Unrealistic or not thought through properly| Spice up| Make more lively| Unsavoury| Unpleasant, morally offensive| Turned sour| Went wrong| Juicy| Exciting and interesting| Chapter 29| | Split the bill| Each person will pay for him/herself| Is on me| Informal: I am paying for you| Join us| Come with us| Be our guest| Formal: we will pay| Get this| Informal: pay the bill this time| Wined and dined| Invited out to restaurants| Impeccable| Perfect, can’t be faulted| Sluggish| Rather slow| Courteous| Polite| Sullen| Bad-tempered/unwilling to smile| Overbearing| Too confident/too inclined to tell people what to do| Brusque| Quick and rude| Off-putting| Makes you feel you don’t want to go there again| Go out of their way| Do everything possible| Have a sweet tooth| Love sweet things| Count the calories/calorie conscious| Be careful how many calories I eat| Savoury| Salty in flavour or with herbs| Fussy eater| Person who has very particular demands when eating| Teetotal| Never drink alcohol| Dietary requirements| Formal: special needs/things someone can’t eat| Overdo it| Eat or drink too much| Take pot luck| Eat what we’re eating, nothing special| Bring a bottle| Usually means a bottle of wine| Dinner party| Rather formal dinner with guests| Informal get-together| Informal group of people meeting for a meal/drinks etc. | Seconds| A second helping/serving of a dish| Say when| Tell me when I have served enough| When! | That’s enough, thanks| Nibbles| Thinks like nuts, crisps etc. before a meal| Grab a bite to eat| Have a quick meal| Take away| Ready-cooked meal bought to take home| Chapter 30| | Give way/give way sing| Geef voorrang/voorrangsbord| Has the right of way| Is allowed to go before other traffic| Sounding/hooting/tooting your horn| Claxoneren| Jumping at red light| Not stopping at| Reckless driving| Very dangerous driving, without any care for others| Drink-driving| Driving when you’ve drank too much alcohol| Breathalyser| Instrument you breathe into to measure alcohol level| Hit-and-run| Running over/into someone and not stopping| Ban| Removal of one’s driving licence| Penalty points| Negative pints on your licence which are added up over time| On-the-spot-fines| Given at the scene of the offence| Exhaust emissions| Waste gases produced by the vehicle| Road worthy| In a condition that it can be driven safely| Tyre tread| The depth of the grooves in the tyre rubber| Tailback| Line of slow or stopped traffic| Pile-up| Crash between several or many cars| Diverted| Directed away from our road| Tow away zone| Area where your car may be taken away if you park illegally| Clamped| Fitted with a metal device on the wheel to prevent it from moving| Road rage| Anger or violence between drivers because of difficult driving conditions| Skidded| Lost control of the steering| Head-on collision| Two vehicles hitting each other directly in the front| Air-bags| Bags in your car that blow up when you crash | Chapter 31| | Scheduled flight| Normal regular flights| Charter flight| Special flight taking a group of people usually to the same holiday destination| Apex| Fares normally have to be booked a fixed no. of days in advance| Value for money/budget| Fare usually cheaper| Restrictions| e. g. you can only travel on certain days| Non-refundable| You can’t get you money back| Cancellation fee| Money you pay when you cancel| Stopover| You may stay somewhere overnight before continuing to you destination| All-in packages| Normally include accommodation and transfers| Transfers| e. g. us or coach to and from you hotel| Crossing| Sea travel on a ferry| Go on a cruise| Holiday on the sea| The holiday of a lifetime| One you will always remember| Berth/shared cabin| A bed in a cabin with other people| Deluxe cabin| Bigger and more comfortable| Upper deck| The h igher part of the ship| Exotic| Unusual or exciting| Get away from it all| Escape you daily life and routines| Getting around| Informal: travelling to different places| Unlimited mileage| You can travel as many miles as you like for the same price| Extras| e. g. accident insurance| Go as you please| Go where you want when you want| Self-catering| Where you do your own cooking| Chalet| Small cottage or cabin specially built for holiday makers| Guest houses| Private homes offering high standard accommodation | Inns| Similar to pubs, but also offering accommodation, usually beautiful old buildings| B and B| Bed-and-breakfast| Half board| Usually breakfast and one other meal| Full board| All meals| Chapter 32| | Escape the crowd| Go where there are not many people| Wander of the beaten track| Go to places tourists don’t normally go| Get back to nature| Live a natural rural style of life| A promising choice| A choice which could be a very good one| Boasts| This use of boast is for listing the good qualities of a place (formal)| Hordes| Crowds, in a negative sense| Tourism sector| Tourist industry (formal)| Seeking something out of the ordinary| Common collocation: looking for something different/unusual| Wealth of| Large amount of (formal)| Virgin| Original and natural| Flora and fauna | Plants and animals (Latin) fixed phrase| Ecotourism| Holidays that respect the environment| Unwind| Relax, reduce your general level of stress| Recharge| Get back you energy| The bush| A term for the wild, tree- or grass- covered areas in Africa or Australia| 4Ãâ€"4| Four by four: vehicles with driving power at all 4 wheels| Waterfront| On the edge of the sea or of a river| Discerning| Who knows what he/she wants in terms of good quality| Stunning| Extremely beautiful| Unbeatable| No other company can offer cheaper ones for the same service| Awe-inspiring| If fills you with a sense of power and beauty of what you’re looking at| Rambled, hikes, treks| These words represent a scale of length and difficulty| Ramble| Long pleasant walk, not too demanding| Hike| More demanding, suggesting more difficult terrain| Trek| Usually of several days over wild country| Unrivalled| No other holiday programme can match this| Savour| A word typically used in advertisements meaning enjoy| Heartland| The inland areas furthest from the sea or from borders with other countries| Chapter 33| | Prone to| Tending to have a particular negative characteristic| Arid| Dry| Drought| Period without rain| Tundra| Area in north with no trees and permanently frozen ground| Vegetation| Plant life| Coniferous| Trees that are evergreen (green all year round) and produce cones, unlike deciduous trees, which lose their leaves in winter| Prairies| Flat grasslands in Canada and Northern USA| Paddy fields| Fields planted with rice growing in water| Cereals| Type of grass cultivated to produce a grain i. e. a food plant like rice, wheat or maize| Tend| Take care of animals| Manufacturing| Producing goods in large numbers| Forefront| In an important position| Generates| Produces| Are descended from| Are related to| Ancestors| Relatives from earlier times: we are our ancestors’ descendants| Migrants| People who move to live in another country| Emigrant| Someone who leaves a country| Immigrant| Someone who moves to live in a country| Settled| Made their homes| Chapter 34| | Formal:| Informal:| Chilly| Freezing/nippy| Hot| Boiling/sweltering/roasting| Windy| Blowy/breezy | Oppressive/sultry| Stifling/heavy/close| Downpour/deluge| Chucking it down/ it’s pouring| Humid| Muggy/clammy| Climate metaphors:| | Climate of distrust| Climate of change| Cultural/current/economic / financial /moral/ political / social/ prevailing climate| Sunny disposition| †¦frosty reception| Job prospects are sunny| Snowed under with work| She said icily| Snowed under with work| Under a cloud of suspicion| Cloud you judgement| Hail of bullets| Hail/storm of abuse| In a haze| Hazy idea| In the mists of| Misty-eyed| Whirlwind of speculation| Whirlwind romance| Thunderous applause| The horses thundered down the race track| Winds of change/discontent/democracy| Chapter 35| | Cement| Make building/relationships stronger| Brick wall| Metaphorically: a barrier| Ceiling| Can be used to suggest a limit to something| Glass ceiling| Phrase used to refer to invisible barrier that stops people, especially woman, from rising to top positions at work| Roof| As metaphor: the roof fell on my world, the day he died. | Go through the roof| Colloquial phrase: 1. If prices go through the roof, they increase in a rapid, uncontrolled fashion. 2. Person goes through the roof, commonly used to mean lose one’s temper hit the roof| Tower| Conveys an idea of distance from ordinary people| Ivory tower| Someone living in it = he or she does not know about the unpleasant and ordinary things that happen in life| Tower of strength| About a person = extremely strong (emotional)| Towers above| Outstanding in some positive way| Gateway to| Metaphorical: provide access| Door| Like gateway to and other metaphorical phrases: * closed shut a lot of doors * opens door * close the door on our past.. | Doing something through/by the back door| Suggest doing it unofficially| Key| Metaphorical phrases: * provide/hold the key to†¦ * the key to success * key figures| Chapter 36| | Seed(s)| Often used to talk about the start of an idea or feeling: * the seeds of success * the seeds of discontent * the seeds of revolution| Root(s)| Is used to suggest the origins of something: * the root of a problem * the roots of a tradition * deeply/firmly rooted collocation| going back to your roots| going back to the place where your family come from| putting down roots| settling down and making your home in one place| take root| Idea becomes known or accepted| Grass roots| Is the ordinary people of an organisation, not the leaders| Stem| Used as verb to signify that something originates in something else| A branch| Something that grows off or branches out from main organisation: * branches of a shop * business branching out in new directions| Bud| Flower before it opens. | Nipped in the bud| Stopped before it develops into something| Budding (adjective)| Showing promise of future development| Weed out| Get rid off| Prune back| Cut/limit| Is reaping the reward of| Is getting results from| Have dug up| Have discovered| Was germinating| Was beginning to develop| Have been sprouting| Have been appearing quickly in large numbers| Is flourishing| Is doing very well| Sheds| Loses| Shed employees / traditions /worries / inhibitions / weight| Lose†¦.. | fading| (metaphorically) becoming smaller| Shrivelling| (metaphorically) becoming less| Wilt| (metaphorically) lose energy| Glance/look/remark can wither or be withering| Make the recipient feel scorned| Chapter 37| | Mammal| Animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds them on its own milk| Rodent| e. g. mouse, rat| Reptile| e. g. snake, lizard| Carnivore| Animal that eats meat| Herbivore| Animal that eats grass/vegetation| Predator| Animal that hunts/eats other animals| Docile| Behaves very gently| Tame| Not afraid of humans| Domesticated| Lives with ore is used by humans| Wild| Opposite of domesticated| Savage| Extremely violent or wild| Fierce | Behaves aggressively| Natural habitat| Preferred natural place for living and breeding| Game reserves/game parks| Areas of land where animals are protected from hunting, etc. | Bird sanctuary| Protected area where birds can live and breed| Animal shelter| Place where cats, dogs, horses, etc. hich have no home are given food and a place to live| Blood sports| Sports whose purpose is to kill or injure animals| The fur trade| The hunting and selling of animal furs for coats, jackets, etc. | Poachers| People who hunt animals illegally| The i vory trade| The buying and selling of ivory from elephants’ tusks| Animal rights activists| People who actively campaign for the protection and rights of animals| Chapter 38| | Shrinking habitats| Places where animals live and breed which are decreasing in size| Endangered species| Types of animals/plants which are in danger of no longer existing| Global warming| Steady rise in average world temperatures| Climatic changes| Changes in the weather/climate| Carbon dioxide emissions| Carbon dioxide gas from factories, cars, etc. | Fossil fuels| Coal, oil, etc. | Greenhouse effect| Warming of the Earth’s surface caused by pollution| Exerts severe pressure on| Formal: puts pressure on| Finite resources| Limited resources| Ecological balance| Balance of natural relationships in the environment| Deforestation| Destruction/clearing of forests| Demographic projections| Forecasts about the population| The worst case scenarios| The worst possibilities for the future| Pristine environments| Perfectly clean/untouched/unspoilt areas| Green credentials| Reputation for positive support of the environment| Prophets of doom and gloom| People who always make the most of depressing or pessimistic forecasts for the future| Sustainable development| Development of industry, etc. hich does not threaten the environment or social and economic stability| Piecemeal conservation| Carrying out conservation one bit at a time, with no overall plan| Chapter 39| | Prompt| Quick, without delay| Query| Question or enquiry about service| Responsive to complaints| They listen, take them seriously and act| Accommodating| Willing to understand and help| Got back to me| Called me with an answer to my query| Impeccable| 100% perfect| Obliging| Willing and happy to do things for you | Incompetent| Failing through insufficient skill, knowledge or training| Impersonal| Lacking a personal element| Shoddy| Poor quality (of service or of goods)| Substandard| Below the standard expected (often used about actions)| Uncooperative| Not supportive, unwilling to work together| Backlog| Number which are waiting to be dealt with| Sense of urgency| Feeling that your request is important or urgent| Helpline| Telephone number where you can get help if you have problems| Put you on hold| Make you wait| Under guarantee/warranty| Having a written promise by a company to repair or replace a faulty product| Secure site| Web address where no outside person can read your details| Privacy policy/safe transactions| Business exchanges which protect, e. g. your credit card from use by someone else| FAQ| Frequently asked questions| Browse| Look at the list of goods/services offered before buying| Immediate dispatch| Goods will be sent at once| Nationwide| Covering the whole country| Chapter 40| | Landing card| Form with your personal details and date of arrival| Customs declaration form| Form showing how much money and what goods you are carrying| Vaccination certificate| Paper proving you have had the necessary health injections| Entry restrictions| Rules about who can enter a country and for how long| Spot checks/random checks| Checks done without warning| Sniffer dogs| Specially trained dogs who can smell drugs and bombs| Clear customs| Take your bags through customs| Port of entry| The port or airport where you first enter a country | Political asylum| Permission to stay in another country to avoid political persecution back home| Economic migrants| People who try to enter from poorer countries just to get work| Offences| Offence is a formal word for an illegal action| Fixed penalty| Fixed sum payable for a particular offence| On-the-spot fine| Fine payable at the time and place that you commit the offence| Parking tickets| Papers places on driver’s windscreens fining them for illegal parking| Breathalyser| An instrument which you blow into that whose if you have consumed alcohol recently| Make a statement| Say what happened and sign a copy of it| Stop-and-search| Power to stop people and search them in the street| Surveillance cameras| Cameras that record everything that happens| Search warrant| Official permission from a judge or magistrate to search your house| Security forces| Often a name for the army and police together enforcing the law| Plain clothes/undercover police| Police who do not wear uniform| Paramilitary police| Police who are more like soldiers than civilian police officers| Drug squad| Policy specially trained to fight the illegal drug trade| Anti-corruption squad| Police specially trained to discover and fight bribery/corruption| Chapter 41| | Adherent (of)| A person who supports a particular idea or party| Convert (to)| Someone who has taken on a new set of beliefs| Fanatic| (disapproving) someone with a very strong belief| Radical| Someone who believes there should be extreme political change, either of a left- or right-wing nature| Reactionary| (disapproving) someone who opposed to change or new ideas| Bigot| (disapproving) someone with strong unreasonable beliefs who thinks that anyone with other beliefs is wrong| Feminism| Movement that seeks equal political and social right for women | Assumption| Unquestioning acce3ptance that something is true| Derives from| Has its origins in| Eradicate| Abolish or get rid of| Postulates| Basic principles| Consciousness| Awareness| Usher in| Introduce| Credible| Believable| Credulous| Too willing to believe what you’re told| Incredulous| Not wanting or able to believe something| Credence| (formal) acceptance that something is true| Gullible| Easily tricked into believing things that may not be true| Ingenuous| Trusting, sincere, often in a way that seems foolish| (im)plausible| (un)convincing| Ascribe/attribute| (formal) you consider something to be caused, created or possessed by that person or thing| A tenet| One of the principles on which a belief is based| Give someone the benefit of the doubt| To accept that someone is telling the truth even if you thought it is not certain| Take something with a pinch of alt| You do not totally believe what you are told| I don’t buy that! A likely storyWhat d’you take me for? I wasn’t born yesterday! Pull the other one! I’ll believe it when I see it! | (informal) I don’t believe it (yet)| Chapter 42| | Superstitious| Have illogical beliefs about hidden forces in nature| Centenary/bi-centenary| 100th anniversary/ 200th anniversary| Penance| Actions to show you are sorry for bad deeds| Fasting| Not eating for a long period| Flamboyant| Extremely colourful and exaggerated| Raucous| Very noisy| Sombre| Serious, heavy and sad| Atmospheric| Had a special feeling or atmosphere| Commemorates| Formal: respects and remembers officially| Chapter 43| | Syntax| The grammar and word order| Modality| Meanings such as possibility and necessity| Modal verbs| Like must, could and should| Phonology| The sound system| Phonemes| Different sounds that distinguish meanings| Diphthongs| Sounds made by combining vowels, such as ? and ei| Lexicon| Technical term for vocabulary| Compounds| Words formed by combining words| Graeco-Latin| Originally from Greek and Latin| Anglo-Saxon| Language of England from 500-100 AD| Orthography| Technical term for writing systems| Characters| Letters or symbols| Pictograms| Characters representing pictures| Ideograms| Characters representing ideas/concepts| Morphology| How words are formed| Morphemes| Units of meaning| Inflected| Words have endings to show tense, person, person, etc. | Isolating| Each words had only one morpheme| Chapter 44| | Feudal| Relating to a social system strictly organised according to rank typical of e. g. Europe in the Middle Ages| Medieval| Of or from the middle ages i. e. 1000-1500 AD| Renaissance| Period of new growth of interest and activity in the arts especially in Europe in the 14th to 16th centuries| Victorian| Relating to the period 1837-1901 when Victoria was Queen of Britain – associated with values of self-control, hard work, loyalty, strong religious beliefs| Infantry| Soldiers on foot| Cavalry| Soldiers on horseback| Legion| Roman army| suit of) armour| Metal protective clothing worn by soldiers| Chariot| Two-wheeled vehicle pulled by a horse and used in ancient times for racing and war| Galleon| Large sailing ship with three or four masts used in trade and war in the 15th to 18th centuries| Stagecoach | Covered vehicle pulled by horses that carries p assengers and goods on regular routes| Cart | Open vehicle with two or four wheels and pulled by an animal| Serf| Person working on the land who legally belongs to his master| Jester| Person who entertained people in the Middle Ages with jokes| Minstrel| Person who entertained people in the Middle Ages with music and poetry| Highwayman| Man on horseback who robbed travellers on roads| Chapter 45| | Absolute poverty| Is defenced according to an absolute minimum standard, often called ‘poverty line’| Relative poverty| Means that you are poor in relation to those around you| Income poverty| Means that you are poor if you have less money than the defined poverty line for your country| Human poverty| Takes into account other factors, such as life expectancy, infant malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of food or clean water| Malnutrition| Ill health caused by inadequate food| Illiteracy| Inability to read or write| Sanitation| Systems for taking dirty water and waste from homes to ensure good hygiene| GDP| Gross Domestic Product: the total value of all the goods and services produced in a country in one year, excluding income received from abroad| GNP| Gross National Product is GDP plus money earned from abroad by companies based in that country| Poverty alleviation| Reducing the level of poverty| Debt servicing| Paying back money owed on loans| Penury| The state of being extremely poor| The breadline| Having the level of income of an extremely poor person| Impoverished| Poor, without much money to live on| Destitute| Without money, food, home or possessions| Deprived| Not having the things necessary for a pleasant life- food, home, money| Living from hand to mouth| Having just enough money to live without suffering| Money has been tight| There has not been much money| Chapter 46| | Legislation| Law making| Constituents| People who elected on MP| Lobbies| Interest groups who try to influence MPs| Corporations| Large companies| Institute of Directors| Organisation of top business people| Ministers| MPs with top responsibilities, e. g. for health, education| Civil servants| People employed in government departments (the Civil Service)| Lobbyists| People who lobby| Chancellor of the Exchequer| Finance minister (in the UK)| Annual budget| Yearly financial plan (of tax rates, etc. )| Petitions| Formal requests often signed by lots of people| Tax concessions| Reductions in taxes| Producers| Manufactures: a person or business that makes something| Centralised| Concentrated in one central organisation| Close-knit| With close ties to each other| Well-funded| With plenty of financial support| Consumers| People who use/buy products| Fragmented| Separate; not centralised| Friends of the Earth| Large environmental organisation| Child Poverty Action Group| Large organisation helping children| Paid-up members| People who have paid their membership fees, i. e. ommitted members| Deputations| People sent to speak for a group| Counter| Oppose| Grievances| Complaints about unfair treatment| Appeal to| Request support from| Chapter 47| | To abrogate a law/treaty| To bring a law/treaty to an official end| To bend the law/rules| To break the law/rules in a way tha t is considered not to be harmful| To contravene a law| To break a law| To impeach a president/governor| To make a formal statement saying that a person in public office has committed a serious offence| To infringe someone’s rights| To prevent a person doing what they are legally allowed to do| To lodge an appeal| To make an official appeal| To uphold/overturn a verdict| To say that a previous decision was correct/incorrect| To pervert the course of justice| To put obstacles in the way of justice being done| To squash a decision/conviction| To change a previous official decision/conviction| To set a precedent| To establish a decision which must, in English law, be taken into account in future decisions| To award/grant custody to| To give one parent or adult the main responsibility for a child especially after separation or divorce| To annul a marriage/agreement/law| To declare that it no longer exist and never existed| Discrimination| Unfair treatment on ground of sex, race or nationality| Embezzlement| Stealing money that is in your care or belongs to an organisation that you work for| Harassment| Making a person feel anxious and unhappy | Insider trading/dealing| Illegal buying and selling of shared by someone who has specialist knowledge of a company| Joyriding| Driving around for enjoyment in a car you have stolen| M oney laundering| Moving money obtained illegally so that its origin cannot be traced| Perjury| Lying when under oath| Trespass| Go onto someone else’s land without permission| Civil(court)| Matters relating to, say, divorce| Indictable| i. e. hey are tried by indictment in a higher level of court| Summary (offences)| Are less serious and can be tried in lover level court| Binding | They have to abide by his or her decision| Chapter 48| | Patriotism| Loyalty to your own country| Deterrents| Ways of discouraging people from doing something because of the negative results| Outlaw| Make war illegal or impossible| 1918| End of WO I| Aerial warfare| Fighting a war using aeroplanes| 1945| End of WO II| Annihilation| Total destruction by nuclear weapons| Great powers| Most important political powers (used about the USA and the Soviet Union from the 1940s to 1990s)| Revulsion against| Feeling of total disgust towards| Causes| Movements, organisations| Gaining their ends| Achieving the ir aims| To wage war| To fight a war| Hostilities| Acts of war| To besiege| To attack a place by surrounding it| To ambush| To attack unexpectedly from secret positions| A truce| An agreement during a war to stop fighting for a time| A ceasefire| Agreement between two armies or groups to stop fighting| To rout| To defeat totally| Peacekeeping troops| Neutral soldiers engaged in keeping the peace in divided society| An international observer| Outside, neutral person or body| A campaign| Planned group of military activities| An incendiary device| Bomb| Germ/biological warfare| Using germs to cause disease among enemy soldiers or crops| Chapter 49| | Development grants| Are often given to poor regions (money to help economic development)| Sustainable development| Is the most important goal for most countries (development that does not destroy the economy/the environment, etc. )| Restrictive practices| The placing of unfair restrictions, e. g. limiting imports| Sanctions| Restrictions on what a country may import/export| Embargoes| Total prohibitions on importing/exporting certain goods| Devaluation/revaluation| Reduction/increase in value against other currencies| Slump in prices| Serious fall/collapse in prices| Fiscal measures| Measures concerning taxes, etc. | Boost the economy| Give the economy a lift| Chapter 50| | Was broke/skint| Had no money left: broke = informal, skint = very informal| I’m rolling in it| Informal: have a lot of money| To make ends meet| To survive financially| Things are a bit tight | Informal: my finances are not good| Strapped for cash| Informal: needed cash and had very little| Bounced| The bank refused to pay it| Make†¦ out to| What name shall I put on it| APR| Annual percentage rate of interest| Expires| Is not valid after| Credit card fraud| Illegal use of someone’s card or account| Charge card| Card where you must pay back the whole debt each month| Store card| Credit card issued by a store/shop for that store| Lump sum| Single, large payment| Golden handshake| Large payment to someone on leaving a job| Endowment| Combined insurance and savings plan that pays out after a fixed period| Life-savings| Money saved over many years| Share portfolios| Combination of stocks and shares of different kinds| Chapter 51| | Obituaries| Descriptions of the lives of famous people who have just died| Leader/editorial| An article giving the newspaper editor’s opinion| Classified ads| Pages of advertisements in different categories| Supplements| Separate magazines included with the newspaper| Feature| An article or set of articles devoted to a particular topic| Agony columns| Sections in a paper or magazine that deal with readers’ private emotional roblems| Agony aunt| Person, typically a woman, who answers letters in the agony column| Pamphlet| Small book with a soft cover, dealing with a specific topic, often political| Leaflet| Single sheet or folded sheets of paper giving information about something| Brochure| Small, thin b ook like a magazine, which gives information, often about travel or a company, etc. | Prospectus| Small, thing book like a magazine, which gives information about a school, college or university, or a company| Flyer| Single sheet giving information about some event, special offer, etc. , often given out in the street| Booklet| Small thin book with a soft cover, often giving information about something| Manual| Book of detailed instruction how to use something| Chapter 52| | Instant messaging| A kind of e-mail where both people are online at the same time| Chat rooms| An online conversation between a group of people on topics chosen by them, where you can enter or leave the ‘room’ at any time| Newsgroups| A website where people with shared interests can get news and information| e-commerce| All kinds of business done on the internet| Attachments| Files you send at the same time as e-mail messages| Browsing| Looking at different websites, with no particular goal| Surfing the web| Moving from one website or on web page to another, usually looking for something| Graphic images| Technical term for pictures, icons, diagrams, etc. | ISP| Internet Service Provider: a company that offers users access to the Internet and services such as news, e-mail, shopping sites, etc. usually for a monthly fee| Downloading| Bringing files to your computer from the internet| Uploading| Sending files from your computer to the internet or to another internet user| S pam| Unwanted advertisements and other material sent to you by e-mail from companies| Cookies| A kind of program that is sent from the internet to your computer, often without your knowledge, which can follow and record what you do, which websites you visit, etc. | Offensive material| Material such as pornography, or extreme political views, or material that encourages hate and violence against people| Bookmarked| Put it in a list of websites I can access immediately| Subscribe to| Become a member of| Screen out| Prevent from reaching you| Server| Central computer that distributes e-mail and other services to a group of users| Down| Not working| Hacked into| Accessed it illegally| Anti-virus software| Protection against computer viruses| Bounced| Came back to me| Garbled| Just a series of meaningless letters and numbers| Chapter 53| | Innovative| Original and interesting| Unsurpassed| The best there is| Leave other cars standing| Are much better than other cars| Put/leave other candidates in the shade| Make candidates from other courses seem insignificant| Rock-bottom| Extremely low| Slashed! | Dramatically reduced| Bargains galore! | A huge number of products on sale at ridiculously low prices| Pamper yourself| Treat yourself to something luxurious| Indulge yourself| Allow yourself something enjoyable| Sumptuous/opulent| Both adjectives mean rich and special: sumptuous collocates most strongly with words relating to food and furnishings, and opulent with words relating to lifestyle| In the lap of luxury| In a very luxurious way| Proven| Shown by research| State-of-the-art| Use the very latest technology| Stand out in the crowd| Be noticed| Tantalisingly| Temptingly| Fetching/alluring| Both adjectives mean attractive| Alliteration| Repetition of a sound| Billboards| Very large boards used for advertising| Flyers| Sheets of printed information advertising something| Trailers| Brief excerpts from a film, TV or radio programme which are used to advertise it| Sky-writing| Words written in the sky using smoke from a plane| Sandwich boards| Advertising posters hung at the back and front of a person who then walks around a busy area| Plug| Advertise| Chapter 54| | Pressure groups| People trying to influence what other people think about a particular issue| Air their views| Express their opinions| Seek publicity| Want to reach a wider audience| Press conferences| Meetings to give information to and answer questions from the press| Press release| Give a formal announcement to the press| Sound bite| Short memorable sentence or phrase that will be repeated in news bulletins and articles| Silly season| Time of year, summer in the UK, when there is not much happening and trivial stories end up on the front page| Useful sources| Making use of people or organisations which regularly provide news| Monitoring| Regularly checking| Column inches| Space| Put their own gloss/spin on a story| Present a story in a particular way| Muck-raking| Collecting scandal (informal and disapproving)| Arag| Informal for a newspaper and it suggests that it is not of very high quality| Gutter press| Disapproving term used about the kind of newspapers and magazines that are more interested in crime and sex than serious news| Glossy| Expensive magazine printed on good quality paper| Copy| Produced by journalist, having to be ready for a deadline| Deadline| Moment that al the articles have to be finished and ready to go to the press| Stop press| Place for very important stories| Hot off the press| A very new newspaper or story| Exclusive| A story that is only to be found in one newspaper| Scoop| Story discovered and published by one newspaper before all the others| Hit the headlines| Story breaks| Story breaks| Becomes public knowledge| Chapter 55| | Fighting off| Trying to get rid of| Gone down with| Has caught, usually a non-serious illness| Come down with| With I we say come down not go down| I got over it| Got better/recovered| Recovering from| Getting better: uses for more serious illnesses| Suffers from| Used for more long-term problems| Died of/from| Not: he died with lung cancer| Healthcare| General expression for all of the services offered by hospitals, clinics, dentists, opticians, etc. | National insurance| Tax paid by most adults which covers the costs of healthcare for everyone| National Health Service| British name for the service that covers hostpitals, clinics, dentists, etc. family doctor/GP| doctor who looks after people’s health: GP means general practitioner| Surgery| Small centre with just two or three doctors| clinic| Large centre with several doctors and kinds of services| Prescription charge| Charge for the medication the doctor prescribes, which you pay at a pharmacy| Go private| Choose private he althcare| Diabetes| Disease where the body does not properly absorb sugar starch| Bronchitis| Inflammation in the breathin system, causing you to cough| Heart disease| Serious illness connected with the heart which can lead to a heart attack| Skin cancer/lung cancer/breast cancer| Harmful tumours in those areas| TB (tuberculosis)| Infectious disease in the lungs| Cholera| An intestinal disease that can be caused by bad drinking water| Hepatitis| Inflammation of the liver| Typhoid| Fever, with red spots on the chast and abdomen| Heart attack/failure| When the heart fails| Chapter 56| | Hurt| Gives pain caused by an injury| Ache| To suffer a usually dull persistant pain| (the usual) aches and pains| Often used to refer in a non-serious way to minor problems| Cuts and bruises| Can refer to minor injuries| Stinging| Sudden, burning pain| Throbbing| Beating with pain| Stiff neck| Pain and difficulty in moving your neck round| Dizzy| A feeling that you are spinning round and can’t balance| Feverish| With a high temperature| Nauseous| Feeling that you want to vomit| Trembling| Shaking| Bunged up| Blocked| Off-colour/under the weather/ out of sorts| Informal expressions that mean ‘not well, but not seriously ill’| Alternative medicine| Different from typical western systems: * acupuncture * chripractic * herbal medicine| Homeopathy| Taking tiny amounts of natural substances to treat an illness| Aromatherapy| Using aromatic oils and massage| Chapter 57| | Clotting| Forming a partly solid lump| Dehydration| Not having enough water in your body| Ulcer| Painful infected area on the skin or inside your body| Side effects| Unwanted effects in addition to the intended one| Stools| Medical term for (formal) excrement or (informal, childish) pooh| Symptom| (methaphor) Often used when talking about problems in society| Prognosis| (methaphor) How experts expect it to develop| Ailing| (methaphor) One that has a lot of problems| A rash of| (methaphor) A number of similar things happening at the same time| Fever| (methaphor) Great excitement| Fever pitch| (methaphor) A points of very high intensity| jaundiced| (methaphor) Unenthusiastic or sceptical because of previous bad experiences| Carry the scars of/be scarred by | (methaphor) be permanently affected by a negative experience| Chapter 58| | Cholesterol| Fatty substance found in the body tissue and blood of all animals| Plaque| Unwanted substance that forms on the surface of the arteries| Offal| Organs from inside animals which are eaten as food (brains, heart, kidneys, liver)| Excreted| Got rid of from the body| Fibre| Substance in food that travels through the body as waste helping digestion| Buffer| Something (or someone) that helps protect from harm| Gut| Tubes that carry food from the stomach| Cardiovascular| Affecting the heart and blood circulation| Diabetics| an illness in which the body cannot cope with glucose because it does not produce enough insulin| Glucose| Sugar| Insulin| Hormone that controls the level of sugar in the body| Pounds| Measure of weight 1 pound (lb) = 454 grams| Mood enhancer| Hormone that makes you feel happier| Sports and fitness metaphors:| | Scored an own goal| Made things worse rather than better| Moving the goalposts| Changing the rules| Level playing field| Fair situation| In the running| Seriously considerd| Neck and neck| Level with each other and equally likely to win| Skate around| Don’t talk directly about| Sailed through| Passed very easily| Also check: Chapter: 41 A 43 A + end B 44 A 48 C 49 A/B/C How to cite English Vocabulary in Use Chapter 21/58, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Role of The Mental Health Nurse Towards Physical Health

Question: Describe about Role of The Mental Health Nurse Towards Physical Health? Answer: Introduction Nursing is a great career option. This profession allows toprovide services for helping people to improve their health outcomes as well as includes services for saving peoples life. The nursing career is a satisfying, acceptable and rewarding in respect to the pleasure it brings with success (Koenig et al. 2012). Therefore, nurses should be grateful or should be proud of their role and job profile. According to their career option, nurses should draw their career path by observing and working in the diverse situation. Nursing profession can be an exciting career for success in men and women; this field offers a lot. Health care careers are booming and new technological innovations are brightening up in the health care field enhancing the career. The job has various degrees of opportunities and job security has enhanced. Through this profession with great skills nurses can make a difference in someones life, thus this profession teaches people to value life (Swanson 2012). Nursing profession provides the opportunity to learn in a continuous manner. Nursing profession makes the person more competent to work in different departments with the same efficiency; it helps to build critical thinking skills and handling the emergency with problem solving skills. People who like to work in the challenging situation, the nursing profession is a great option for them. Selecting mental health nursing as a specialty is a great option as well (Purnell, 2012). Mental health nursing deals with the care activities of the patients dealing with mental illness. It is more challenging from other departments of nursing, as each patient has different psychology, therefore, for each patient, nurses and therapists need to implement different care plans, thereby enhancing the critical thinking skills (Swanson 2012). There is a number of training programs provided during the course, for enhancing the mental health nursing skills. Helping people to restore their mental health is m ore or equally valuable and satisfying as in the case of caring patients with physical illness. Clinical examples and shaping the personal philosophy of practice Nursing can be defined as the promotion, protection, abilities and prevention of injury and illness. It includes alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocacy in individual, community, population or groups care. Therefore, considering and addressing nurses own personal philosophy is important for being an efficient nurse (Happell et al., 2012). There are different aspects which shaped the personal nursing philosophy of a mental health nurse. Nursing is a career where nurses with critical thinking skills select the strategy for helping and providing efficient and appropriate care services to the patients as well as share their values and perceptions with other members of the care services. For a mental health nurse, knowledge is the first aspect shaping the nursing philosophy. Knowledge is the key aspect of the career. As a nurse, the nurse should achieve the knowledge of mental health care services and different disorders during the course study. Until a nurse is not becoming able to apply the classroom knowledge to the practical field or in work flied, the knowledge is of no use (Blythe and White 2012). Therefore, it has been revealed that application of knowledge can shape the efficiency and potentiality of the clinical practice of a mental health nurse. In the context of knowledge, the holistic nursing should be applied in each aspect of nursing with continuous anticipation of the health requirements of nursing. According to Florence Nightingale, nursing is an art and nurses should build their mind to see the beauty of art become an efficient nurse (Im and Ju Chang 2012). In this view, nurses should strive to uphold the visualization of Nightingale regarding the pr ofession and should appreciate the art of human beauty and in the case of mental health nurse; they should appreciate the beauty of human mind and its link with physical well-being. The next aspect is caring and compassion, a nurse is always likely to be enough caring and empathetic to the patients. Especially in the case of mental health nursing, one of the key aspects is to establish a positive relation with the patient for understanding the health status and personal health needs of the patient. In the field of mental health, showing empathy to the patient is the chief criteria for providing relief and analyzing the chances of patients mental health recovery. Patients in mental health care, mostly has been suffering from trauma or painful life events, so handling them with emotional care is important. Once, a positive rapport and trust are built; patients become more available to share their inner feelings (Munhall 2012). The nurses should consider the ethical considerations and basic human rights while working with patients with mental health issues. In this context, honesty and respect toward patients are two more aspects shaping the mental-health nursing career. The mental health nurses do their best to provide a healthy, safe and well-balanced environment by providing rights to the patient. Collaborative practice in the health care practice will promote the health benefits of the patients. Paying very close attention to the patients condition and the health care environment would be effective in promoting health benefits of the patients (Stuart 2014). Additionally, the nurse should be efficient enough to analyze the need for change in the health care setting as well as particular health care plan for a patient. Implementing change based on the current requirements of service users is a key nursing competency. Another major aspect is the advocacy of patients. It will be kept in mind that, confidentiality, legal protection of patients and ethical practices are the key aspects of success in the health care sector. During the care plan, the patients needs should be prioritized with the consideration of their choices regarding the health care intervention. Prioritizing patients view helps to enhance the health care outcomes. It should be analyzed based on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs model (Fawcett and Desanto-Madeya 2012). Next part is honor and respect toward patients and their family. Following the viewpoint of Florence Nightingale, the nurse would appreciate the cultural norms and beliefs of patients from diverge culture and would show equal dignity and respect through the provision of health care services. In addition, another aspect that can shape the philosophy of a mental health nurse can be the continuous knowledge building and keeping a relation with society and social care for achieving new and innovative knowledge for providing in health care services to the patients (Butts and Rich 2012). Therefore, these aspects shape the philosophy of nursing in a mental health nurse. This would help to achieve nursing competencies and to an efficient mental health nurse. Finally, self-esteem and self-confidence are very important to handle critical cases in the appropriate way that is key success factor of nursing (Morgan and Yoder 2012). Linking personal philosophy to relevant literature The personal philosophy of nurses is built on the basis of the existing nursing literature and relevant theories related to nursing practices. According to Dossey et al. ( 2012), there is a direct correlation between the personal philosophy of nursing and nursing theories. In general, nurses use certain nursing theories or models by which they are influenced and include these into their practice field, thereby including those theories in their personal philosophy related to nursing. In this context, mental health nurses focus on the theories that are built on the basis of relationship building within patients and nurses. For this reason, nursing philosophies and theories and the terms related to these two aspects are interchangeable in both theoretical and practical field of nursing. As the nursing theories help to build their personal philosophy, the personal philosophy of nurses promote them to identify the type of theories and models used by them. Both the nursing theories and phi losophy provides the nurse an approach of their daily practice and helps in deciding particular care plan for the individual patient (Townsend 2014). There are a number of theories provided by different theorists, who have considered different aspects of nursing practice. In this context, the nursing theories related to the core aspects of mental health nursing would be linked with the personal philosophy of practice. The first nursing theorist was Florence Nightingale and she identified five component of the environment and indicated the linkage between environment, person, health and nursing. According to her, nursing the ability to see and feel the art and beauty of human body. While developing own nursing philosophy, this fact has been considered at first for being able to see the art of human mind and be able to link it with the physical well-being of patient (McCrae 2012). Hildegard Peplau established the Interpersonal theory of nursing. Here the theorists defined the nurse/patient relation establishment through four stages, including orientation, identification exploitation and resolution. Here the nursing profession has been viewed as the maturing force or a personality that grows with the educational, therapeutic and interpersonal process. After assessing the needs of the patient, nurses enter into a personal relationship with the patient. This is a popular theory in mental health nursing (Ignatavicius and Workman 2015). In the personal philosophy, it has been depicted that, one of the aspect that has been shaped the nursing philosophy is the relationship establishment with the patients, as it helps to enhance trust of the patients and a supportive environment promote the patient to share their inner feelings. Therefore, it helps the nurse to identify the reason of his mental illness (Wu and Volker 2012). On the other hand, Madeleine Leininger provided the view of Transcultural Nursing in 1978. Here the theorist depicted that; the nurses should have the goal to provide care to the patients by valuing their cultural beliefs, perceptions, values and practices. According to the theorist, the health care professional should plan the care services after addressing the interpersonal values, health beliefs and life styles of different cultures, thereby providing specific care to the individual patient with specific cultural needs. In the personal philosophy of nursing, it was a key aspect that, nurses should provide specific care to individual patients through the provision of equal care practices and holistic care (Im and Ju Chang 2012). Through the provision of holistic care, nurses would be able to provide advance care with the cultural beliefs of the particular patient. Considering the cultural context of patients, the nurses will be able to create a great environment in the health care settings, thereby enhancing their health benefits. Virginia Henderson has proposed the Need theory; this theory is based on education and practice that are two crucial factors shaping the efficiency and personal philosophy of nursing. She was known as the Nightingale of Modern Nursing. The theorist highlighted that enhancement of client's independence was important for promoting the continuous healing progress after hospitalization. According to this theory, a nurse should assist the patient to perform those activities suitable for their recovery. Here the major contributing factor is the ability of the nurse to sense particular health needs of the patient (Cleary et al. 2012). The nurses own personal philosophy has been influenced by this theory. In personal philosophy, it has been highlighted that, in mental health nursing, the establishment of positive rapport and trust of the patient toward the nurse is a key step of care for mental health nurse and this the nurses would have to assess the specific needs of the patient. Critical consideration of own philosophy While working in the mental health nursing, a number of mental health patients have been handled and for handling each patient, consideration of own personal nursing philosophy is important, as according to the personal philosophy, a nurse shapes the care plan for a patient. In this context, this essay will emphasize on critical consideration of own philosophy while working with two patients. The first patient to be discussed, Mr. S, was having obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient has the symptoms of repeating his feelings over and over, including reoccurring obsessions and compulsions in a chronic and long-lasting mental disorder. The patient was feeling repeated obsessions of fear of germs or contamination causing anxiety. As he has repetitive mental images of germs, he was over conscious about the cleaning, hygiene and hand washing. While working with this patient, the proper utilization of the personal nursing philosophy has been done (Grossman 2012). Mr. S was suffering from severe OCD and needed critical care service for restoring his mental health (Sharp 2013). The patient was a 40 years old male. At first, the medical history of Mr. S was collected for understanding the mental health status and particular needs of the patient. The history revealed that after losing his job Mr. S undergone depression and after some days diagnosed with bipolar disorder, in disease progression he was diagnosed with OCD. After attending the patient, nurse gathered knowledge from the nurse educator and psychotherapists about the disorder (Mealer et al. 2012). These kinds of patients become frequently anxious and thus establishment of a positive rapport was the first step of nursing care. The nurse attempted to create a positive relationship by listening to him with more consciousness and patience. The nurse always visited the patient with a clean image and always attempted to support his hygiene related behavior. While building relation, the nurse showed honor and respect for the patient. While building the care plan, all the aspects and needs of the patient were considered as the components of holistic care. While supporting the patients right, behavioral therapy was planned for him (Stein et al. 2011). Initially, the frequency, duration and intensity of compulsion and obsessions were recorded and targeted therapy was directed. He was advised for picturing himself touching different objects might having germs and making him understand about the resistance of his urge for washing his hands repeatedly. This therapy slowing helped in restoring his resistance to the compulsion and exposed him to the feared stimulus, thereby supporting and assisting Mr. S to build avoidance behavior, thereby reducing the physiologic fear response occurring with the exposure toward stimulus (Mealer et al. 2012). Along with the behavioral therapy, he was recommended serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antidepressants for enhanced control of anxiety. During the therapy, the nurse continuously encouraged the patient in collaborative practices while acknowledging patients anxiety and compulsions and supporting him to enhance the efficiency of completing work through the involvement of his family members in ther apy. The next patient was Mrs. X; she was a 52 years old women suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. This disorder was associated with depression and anxiety after the death of his 22-years old son and husband in a car accident and she was present at the time of the accident but survived. In this condition, she was brought to the hospital (Mealer et al. 2012). After considering her situation, the nurse gathered information about his experiences from her family members. After assessing the information, it was revealed that emptiness, loss of hope and loneliness made her unsocial and pushed her to undergo depression and she started to become the insomniac, hyper-vigilance and re-experienced the trauma via nightmares and flashbacks. It was analyzed that, she need critical support and should be socialized to restore her mental health status. She needed someone to talk with. Therefore, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy was best-suited therapy for her (Katon et al. 2011). In this case, the nurse showed empathy and respect for the patient for building a positive relation with the patient. While building relation with the patient, the nurse attempted to support her emotionally and initially started to talk with her with enhanced frequency, while talking, the nurse asked about the small details of the trauma and encouraged to write about her nightmares and dreams. After undergoing the IRH therapy, nurse discussed the cognitive therapy with Mrs. X and collected her consent for planning counseling sessions with the psychotherapist, thereby prioritizing human rights of the patient (Davidson and Frances 2012). It influenced her to change her negative behavior. This led to a change implementation in the care practice by the nurse. The nurse arranged collaborative practices in the care settings; she attempted to make Mrs. X social by involving her with other patients in the care settings. It helped the patient to become socialize and to understand how to evalu ate the change in her negative thoughts. The nurse also helped her to restore her mental health through the relaxation techniques (Suhonen et al. 2012). Conclusion In conclusion, it can be said that nursing is a profession that promotes the health and welfare of patients. Mental health nursing is the good choice of specialty nursing for the learners who likes the challenging jobs. In this context, it has been revealed that mental health nursing can provide a good opportunity to achieve best carrier option with the benefits of self-esteem and satisfaction. However, the job can be challenging and excellent critical thinking and problem solving skills are needed by the nurses preferring the mental health sector. This essay provided the personal philosophy and critical consideration of a nurse's own philosophy in the relevant context. The nursing philosophy can be characterized as, how one can define nursing, how people can demonstrate the characteristics essential for enhancing nursing capabilities. The own philosophy of nursing develops based on the relevant nursing theories and beliefs existing in the existing health care settings. The essay hig hlighted the aspects were shaping the nursing philosophies with clinical examples. In the next part, the personal philosophy of nursing has been linked with relevant literature by discussing nursing theories and concepts regarding the provision of appropriate care services to the mental health patients. After analyzing the own philosophy of nursing and linking it with the existing literature, the critical consideration of own nursing philosophy has been considered. After being aware of the nursing philosophy and related literature, nurses build their own philosophies and set their own personal and professional goals. Nevertheless, all of these make no sense, until the knowledge and philosophies are not considered in actual scenarios in real life. Therefore, in next step, the essay highlighted the consideration of own nursing philosophies through the analysis of two real life patient's cases and analyzed the efficiency of the nurse through his or her own nursing philosophy. Reference List Blythe, J. and White, J., 2012. Role of the mental health nurse towards physical health care in serious mental illness: An integrative review of 10 years of UK literature.International Journal of Mental Health Nursing,21(3), pp.193-201. Butts, J.B. and Rich, K.L., 2012.Nursing ethics. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Cleary, M., Hunt, G.E., Horsfall, J. and Deacon, M., 2012. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: A review and synthesis of qualitative studies.Issues in Mental Health Nursing,33(2), pp.66-79. Davidson, J.R. and Frances, A., 2012.Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Physicians Postgraduate Press. Dossey, B.M., Certificate, C.D.I.N.C., Keegan, L. and Co-Director International Nurse Coach Association, 2012.Holistic nursing. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Fawcett, J. and Desanto-Madeya, S., 2012.Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories. FA Davis. Grossman, S.C., 2012.Mentoring in nursing: A dynamic and collaborative process. 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